How Many Times A Year Are Grapes Harvested

Umbrella Kniffin System for Growing Grapes

David Handley: I'm David Handley, with theUniversity of Maine Cooperative Extension, and we're here to talk about pruning grapes.Very simple system for farnorthern production. Here in Maine, we need to protect the vinesas best we can through the winter, but at the same time try to get enough light andexposure to the canes that we're going to get good fruit set, and good fruit quality. One of the systems you can use for labruscatype or concord type grapes, which are the ones that do best here in Maine, which isthe umbrella kniffin. As opposed to the four arm kniffin, the umbrella kniffin puts allof its canes up at the top, or the first year

growth that's going to fruit. What we're talking about with cane growthhere is one yearold growth that has a chocolate brown color, and nice smooth bark with budson it. We're going to be saving four canes, plus the permanent trunk, to give us all ofour fruiting structure. Everything else is going to be coming off of here, and that includesanything that fruited last year. You can tell the two yearold canes, or thecanes that fruited last year, because they'll be thicker, and they'll have gray, peelingbark. All of these are going to come off, and we're going to save the one yearold canewith the chocolate brown color, and the smooth

bark. The first step in pruning is to look at ourpermanent trunk and remove all of the two yearold growth, the growth that fruited lastyear, saving a few canes that we'll be using for fruiting this year. Our first step isto cut some of these off, looking at that older bark there. We just cut that out, getit right out of there. This will open up the planting, and that twoyearold wood is not going to fruit. Unless we take it out, we'll find that our fruitingwood gets further and further away from the trunk. Part of the reason we're pruning isto keep that fruiting wood concentrated right

near the trunk. With the umbrella kniffin, which is what we'repruning to here, we're only going to maintain four of those fruiting canes. We want themall concentrated near the top of the trunk, or the top wire on our twowire trellis. We'regoing to take each of the canes that remain behind. As you can see here, here's my nicefruiting cane, smooth bark. All these are buds that are going to breakand give us long, green shoots that will have bunches of grapes on them. We're going todrape them over the top wire, and then we're going to attach them to the bottom wire, togive you that kind of quot;umbrellaquot; look, thus

the name of the system called the quot;umbrellakniffin.quot; Then we're going to cut off the ends of thecanes, so that there's only about 10 buds on each one. We just count those from thetrunk. One, two, three, four, five, six, seven, eight, nine, 10. If I need to leave one ortwo on there to make it reach the bottom wire, that's fine. I'll just go to where I can attachthis to the bottom wire, like that. I need two for the other side, to completeour umbrella. You can see this leaves me with several other fruiting canes, and I need tosave some of those as well, but they don't need to be as long. What I'm calling theseare quot;renewal spurs,quot; because we need the buds

from these shoots to come out and give uscane that we'll be able to put up on the wire next year. For every fruiting cane that I'm leaving behind,I also need to cut some renewal cane, or renewal spurs, to provide us with fruiting wood fornext year. I just cut these back to one or two buds, and if they're not where I wantthem I can cut them off completely. But for every fruiting cane, I need to leave at leastone renewal spur. I tend to leave a couple of extra renewalspurs here in Maine, because I'm very sensitive to the fact that I'm likely to get winterinjury almost every year.

Knowing when to harvest your grapes

gt;gt;TOM VAN DER LINDEN: It's a beautiful Septemberday in Minnesota. We're at the Horticultural Research Center at the University of Minnesotaand it's time to harvest the grapes. But how do you know when it's time to pické I'll showyou how to tell when the grapes are ripe and I'll show you some measurements to be sure,because it's important. After all, better grapes mean better wine. The most important day of the year is theday you pick. It sets in motion the annual harvest and it also determines the kind ofwine you'll make. As a grape grower and a wine maker you should keep a notebook. You'llbe glad to have records in the months and

years to come. Let's start with sight, touch, smell, andtaste. You want your grapes to be rich in color, not green. A ripe grape will crusheasily, but not be shriveled. A ripe grape is plump, and thickly juicy. It's a balancebetween sweet and tart. Each variety develops special flavors that we call varietal flavor.A fully ripe grape develops its varietal flavor more fully. Does the skin have varietal flavoré Is itherbaceous, or is it vegetal, like a green pepperé Is the aftertaste pleasant or is itbitteré Chemical or vinegar tastes or smells are flaws so take good notes if you have thatproblem. One more time, taste the grape and

imagine what the wine will be. Then we'llmove on to some lab work. It's good to use your senses but it's alsoimportant to measure. You need to measure sugar content, pH, and acidity level. Grapesare mostly water and sugar which will ferment to make wine. Brix is a term that the brewingindustry uses to measure the sugar content of grapes. Brix level helps estimate the alcohollevel of your wine. Like temperature, Brix is measured in degrees. Brix is measured witha refractometer, which you can buy at a winemaking supply store or online. Drop some juice onthe test plate, close the cover firmly and look through the viewfinder. You'll see aline where your juice registers on an internal

scale. In this case, the juice registers 24degrees Brix. A somewhat less convenient, but cheaper methodis to buy a simple glass hydrometer which has a builtin scale. Simply pour your juiceinto the cylinder, float your hydrometer and read the Brix level right off the builtinscale. The more sugar in your wine, the higher your hydrometer will float. As your grapesmature, they store more sugar so the Brix level rises. Different wine styles requiredifferent Brix levels. In general, for white wine, 22 Brix is good. We'll keep an eye onour grapes, testing them periodically, and when we reach our Brix goal, then it's timeto pick.

We now know about sugar and how to measureit. Next let's quickly shift to pH and the pH meter. You may remember pH from high schoolscience class. It's a measure of free hydrogen ions. As our grapes ripen and the sugar rises,the pH will rise too. You can buy an inexpensive, portable pH meter. Be sure you buy pH referencesolutions so you can calibrate your meter. Grape juice is full of natural acids, whichlend important qualities to wine. Every time we measure Brix we should also measure acidlevels. In a way they're opposites; as the Brix goes up, the acid levels go down. Youcan buy a simple acid test kit. It takes a little practice and a little care and you'llwant to make good records, but don't worry,

you can do it! So enough with measuring and tasting, let'sgo pick! Are you ready to pické Let's start by pickinga good sample. Yes, you can pick one grape, put it in your refractometer and take a sugarsample, but it won't be very representative of all your grapes. Instead, pick individualgrapes from many clusters. Sample from both sides of the vine, high and low, in sunnyareas and shaded areas, and pick from different parts of each cluster. An ideal sample mightbe 50 grapes. But if you only have a few vines, it'll be okay to take a smaller sample. Makea note about how they felt, how they smelled,

The California Garden In May First Tomato Harvest in 4K

it's the spring season and the Californiagarden is alive welcome to the California Gardenin the month of May so let'slook at what is growing in the California garden we have tomatoes, ourtomatoes have grown very well in this month and you can see they've alreadyfromed fruits now I'm going about five varieties of tomatoes this season andwhen you see these flowers emerging make sure that you pollinate them by handmanually so that you can get a lot more fruit as you can see here now some ofyou have asked me a question and that's since tomatoes are windpollinated do you really need to

pollinate them by hand well it depends if you have a lot ofwind in your area if you have a lot of bees that are visiting your plants itsok to not hand pollinate them but I just do that because the bee population hasbeen decreasing a lot these days and the only way to ensure that your tomatoplants has fruits is to hand pollinate them now a lot of green houses whichproduce tomatoes harbor bumblebees they actually breed bumble bees forpollination and that is why the toothbrush method that Idescribedin my earlier tutorials

works very well to pollinate tomatoes and as you can see these are the cherrytomatoes and are growing pretty well now they even started ripening and now let's moveon to the pepper plant this plant has been over wintered from the last season this is thechile de arbol pepper plant and you saw an update back in Jan and this plantwasn't growing very well but look at it now it's producing a lot of peppers asyou can see here and as it gets warmer the pepper plant will produce a lot ofpeppers so this is a good cold hardy pepper plant that can be grown easily

and okra seedlings have come up verywell and they're waiting for the weather to get warmer so they can grow to theirfull potential and grapes grapes they've grown pretty big and this is the firsttime we're getting grapes from our grapevine and I'm very excited as Imentioned in my previous episode as well because the grapes were being formedand now you can see that the grapes have gotten quite big and they've grown overthis wooden support the arbor that's there next to the grape plant and the corn has been growing pretty well aswell this variety of corn is the Triple

Crown hybrid variety and is the firsttime I'm trying out this corn variety and so far it's grown pretty well this bedwas enriched with some good organic matter once the cabbages wereharvested from this bed from the earlier season and as you can see herewith a lot of organic matter a lot of compost that was added there these plantsare going pretty well they're getting all the nutrients they want and corn needs a lot of water in the initial stages so make sure you water your conplants very well and another vegetable that's growing in ourgarden right now are carrots

growing in the whisky barrel container as well this5 gallon pot and May is a good time to grow carrots it's neither too warmnor too cold, perfect for carrots we also have bush beans this time I triedgrowing bush beans in this whiskey barrel container and so far they've beendoing well we're already seeing some flowers and some beans being formed andthis is pretty much the perfect weather to grow beans and here you can see some beansbeings being formed the small pods that you see and they will eventually becomelarger in size and coming on to our harvest now we have a lot of vegetablesin May beginning with red potatoes and

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