Caring for Young Grape Vines
My name is David Handley, I'm with the Universityof Maine Cooperative Extension, and we're here to talk about how to prune and traina young grapevine. This is a vine that was planted last spring. We got it from a dormantplant, or rooted cutting, and you can see the original part of the planting right here.This is what we got from the nursery, with a good root system under it. We planted it,and we had a bud break and some vine growth. This is last year's growth right here. Thiswas a green shoot. Typically, you may get more than one shoot developing. You may haveseveral buds on here. We want to prune this back to one strong vine, your strongest one.We're going to arrange for that to be tied
up to a trellis, because this particular vineis what's going to become our permanent trunk, or the permanent part of the plant that'sgoing to be with us for the life of the planting. We want to make sure it's the strongest ofthe vines that we can choose from. Any other one that developed that's very weak, we canjust cut that out, select our best one. The time of year to make these cuts are whenthe canes are dormant, and this is going to be really any time after the new year, untilthey bud out in late March, early April. We hope in the first year that we get enoughgood growth that we can tie it to the lower trellis wire.Typically here in Maine, we're going to be
pruning to either a four arm kniffin trainingsystem, or an umbrella kniffin training system. Those trellises consist of two wires, oneset at about two and a half feet, and a second wire set at about five feet.We hope in the first year that we're going to get enough good growth to reach at leastthe bottom wire, but in order to make sure it's growing straight, you can see we supportedthis with a small bamboo pole. Any kind of planting stake will work, and we just tiethat vine up as it grows, rather than let it grow along the ground where it can getrot problems, and not develop a nice straight growth like we want. We tie it up, just likeyou'd tie up a beef steak tomato, get the
growth that you want.As I said, we've got pretty good buds here, reaching up to the first wire. You can seethat I actually make it to the top wire, but you can see the growth up here is very scrawnyand spindly, and isn't really going to lead to a good, strong trunk. I'd rather actuallystart new growth for reaching to this top wire for next year.What that means is that I'm actually going to cut this off here, rather low, to try toget this bud here to break and give me a much stronger shoot to develop my trunk to thetop wire next year. I can just take that there, and then, instead of using the bamboo polethis year, I can just tie it to the wire.
This bud will hopefully break, and give mea good, strong shoot, that I'm going to reach the second wire next year. Of course, thesebuds lower down will also break, and if this one happens to be weak, I may select one ofthese. But, if this bud does turn out to be a strong shoot, I'll be cutting these offnext winter and getting my single trunk back up to the top wire.Next year, when this does reach the top wire, eventually what we'll be doing is taking oneyear old cane, and either draping it over this top wire and connecting it to the bottomwire in an umbrella kniffin, or we'll be taking one cane at the top wire on each side, andone cane at the bottom wire on each side,
to create four arms of one year old growth,for a four\uc0\u8209 arm kniffin system. Both systems work pretty well for concretetype grapes here in a cold climate like Maine.
Over Wintering Strategies New vineyard management practices
Light, electronic music fades in. Narrator: Canadian winters can be tough on wine grape vines. A single extreme cold snapcan damage vines and reduce crop yields by 20 to 30%. When temperatures drop below 20 for an extended period, the whole crop is at risk. And it takes two years for a vine to recover, amounting to a significant financial loss for growers and vintners. Carl Bogdanoff and his team at the Pacific AgriFood Research Centre, in Summerland, British Columbia. .are working with grape growers to better protect vines against the deep freeze. Carl Bogdanoff: In the past, say about 30 years ago, the wine industry was fairly small.
.and also was based on winter hardy hybrid varieties. .which produced fairly medium quality wines. The wine industry here in British Columbia decided to focus primarily on. .quality and to do that they replanted all their vineyards with premium vitus vinifera varieties. .such as merlot, cab franc, chardonnay. All those wine varieties that we know and love. Vitus vinifera can tolerate some freezing but they are seriously tested when temperatures become record low temperatures. And when we do get these really freezing temperatures, grape buds are killed. .vine tissue is damaged, the flowum or zylum or even the roots are damaged, or the vine could be totally killed outright. Narrator: It is a multidisciplined initiative that is fully engaged with the industry.
The team monitors temperatures and bud hardiness at many locations across the Okanagan and Similkameen valleys. Participating growers receive a biweekly, bud hardiness report for major wine grape varieties. They use this information to assess risk of winter injury before and during an arctic event. .to help them decide when to operate fans that draw warmer air into vineyards. Knowing bud damage levels also helps in deciding how much to prune. Carl Bogdanoff: Last winter, this vine was compromised. It's flowum and zylum cells were damaged. It wasn't completely girdled, so this vine broke bud.
.sent up some shoots and had some crops but when it got really hot this summer. .this vine totally collapsed and now is dead. Narrator: Additionally, the research team collects data in several other current research projects. .that are looking at the effects on hardiness of rootstocks and varietal selections. .irrigation practices, use of fans to mix air in the vineyards. .amount of crop on the vines, ground cover between vine rows, disease. .leaf removal and cluster positioning. .and how a plant hormone, one that improves grape colour, is also contributing to bud hardiness.
Mike Watson: Anything we can do to make the vines hardier, even by 2 or 3 degrees. .is huge. It's the difference between up to 50% damage. .and replanting crop loss to having a total successful year in the succeeding year. Carl Bogdanoff: It is really important that we understand. .how we can help these vines weather these cold snaps that occur periodically. .and to develop new vineyard management practices that can improve the cold hardiness of the grape vine.
Narrator: Each summer, the team's interim results are presented at the BC Wine Grape Council's Enology and Viticulture Trade Show. Final results will be made available to growers in 2019. For Canadian vintners, smart science ensures you can enjoy Canadian wines room temperature or chilled. Light, electronic music continues. Light, electronic music fades out. Light, electronic music fades out..
Black Sea Gold leading BULGARIAN wine spirits producer Now its products available in CANADA
Welcome to Black Sea Gold winery Pomorie! An exceptional winery that boasts with an eventful past and impressive wine traditions. Legends say how wines from the ancient town of Pomorie were served at the tables of ancient Troy. in the Middle Ages, these same wines produced in this Pomorie region were sold by the larger wine merchants in medieval Genoa and Venice. On the basis of this wellestablished tradition in the early 20th century
the foundations of a modern winery are laid which as a result of the wine love, and the entrepreneurial spirit that the people from Pomorie, had gradually acquires the appearance of a winery with great potential Today Black Sea Gold winery, is part of the business activities of Festa Holding Ltd., the manufacturing facility in Pomorie, produces wines, brandy, and rakija from close to 600 ha of high quality vineyards, owned by Black Sea Gold winery in 20072009, the investments in the winery amount to 3.5 million Euro for building a new, boutiquestyle, smallscale winery
which is located inside the manufacturing facility of Black Sea Gold. Now I would like to tell you more about this newly build winery for microvinification. and why it is so important for the production of our wines in the premium class. Microvinification it means that all containers used for the wine production, are small that is to say, their volume capacity is 1,2, or up to 5 tons why the wine containers need to be smallé because in this microwinery, all grape berries that we receive from our vineyards are handselected. Selecting gpape berries using this approach
gives us much greater precision in how we produce our wines. giving us the opportunity to produce wines, that fully reflect the geographic region, they are coming from. in other words, our wines reflect the character where our vineyards were grown. Grape clusters are handpicked in special small boxes, in the cool, early hours of the morning. This is the best time for harvesting, because the cool temperatures, allows for preserving the grape's fruit and finesse. When grape berries, are not smashed, and are brought immediately to the vinification place it is a guarantee for achieving best results.
because, if grapes are not taken to the vinification containers, right after they were picked and it takes too much time, the wine will not have this fresh character. In the winery, we have a couple of selecting tables one of which is used to sort separately the whole grape clusters then, the grape bunches, that contain the bitter tannin, are removed and at the next level, each one of the grape berries is carefully selected and is examined, before it proceeds to the wine production level. Fermenting under low temperature, and using small, stainless steel barrels
preserve the rich, fruity aromas, and thus the focus comes down to the mineral finesse and character of the grapes, and from there the wine. White wines are stored under low temperature, and are bottled early so they can retain their fruity character. Red wines on the other hand, using the same approach are characterized with a very fresh fruit, allowing for a long aging in Burgundy oak barrels. Considering the attention we have on each detail, including the way we cultivate our vineyards, the results are impressive! Now, in front of me, I have one exceptional wine Cabernet Sauvignon quot;Brandy Caskquot;, vintage 2007 Vintage 2007 has been one of the best vintages for the last couple of years and it is the year, when for the first time, we started to make wines in our new winery for microvinification.