Four Arm Kniffin System for Growing Grapes
David Handley: I'm David Handley, vegetableand small fruit specialist with the University of Maine Cooperative Extension. Today we'regoing to be talking about a simple system for pruning hardy grapes here in Maine. The pruning system I like to use is very simple.It keeps the plant open, so it gets light in the summer time, but it also protects theplant a little bit in the winter. This system works best with concord type or labrusca typegrapes, which are the grapes that tend to grow best in Maine. There's really a couple of systems that willwork well for labrusca type grapes. The first
one I want to talk about is the four arm kniffin,and that's what we're going to prune first. The four arm kniffin consists of a perennialtrunk, which goes from the ground right up to a top wire, which is set at about fivefeet. Coming off of this trunk, we will have four arms, or canes, oneyear old growth.Two on the top wire, running each side of the top wire, and two on a lower wire. Thislower wire should be set at about two and a half feet off the ground. Every year, we're going to come in and pruneit so we continue to have a perennial trunk, but only four one yearold trunks to producethe fruit.
Here is our permanent trunk. You can see here,this is a cane from last year. Two yearold cane, this was our fruiting cane last summer,and you can see the difference. Here's this year's cane, that nice chocolate brown colorand smooth bark, and here we go with the older cane, the two yearold cane. The bark is startingto peel, and has more of a gray look to it, so we know that this particular shoot isn'tgoing to fruit again. It's the one yearold shoots that come off it that will fruit. This is going to get pruned out, so that wecan keep our fruiting wood closer to the trunk. We'll just take that back to a good fruitingshoot, and we'll start to cut it out. This
is where it gets fun. We need to wrestle thisout of the trellis, and of course, all these little tendrils have tied it up and aroundmost of the growth that's there. It takes a little bit of cutting, but be careful notto break the fruiting canes that you want to leave behind. Pull it off, and that will open the plantingup so we can see what we have left for good fruiting wood for this year. We've taken offthe four fruiting canes that we left last year, and you can see pretty much all that'sleft, at this point, is the green shoots from last year, that will provide us with goodfruit for this year.
Now we need to choose which four we want toput up. We're going to have four canes. One, two, three, four. Two for the lower wire,two for the upper wire, each heading off in different directions. What I want to look for in this case is canethat's got this nice chocolate brown color, and is about 38 of an inch in diameter. Aboutthe width of your little finger. If it's thinner than that, if it's very weak, it won't producegood fruit. Thin stuff like this, less than 38 of an inch in diameter, we'll just cutthat right out. Here we've got one that's going to go in thisdirection, that looks very nice. I'm going
to count, remember we want about 10 buds onit, so we'll count our buds. One, two, three, four, five, six, seven, eight, nine, 10. ThenI just cut out beyond that, because the weaker stuff at the very end isn't going to producevery good fruit. I have my four arms, but you can see I stillhave some leftover canes. What I'm going to use these for are what we call quot;renewal spurs.quot;I'm going to cut these back so that they just have one or two buds on them. What I'm goingto use these buds for, the green shoots that will emerge from these buds and grow out,will be the canes that I'll be putting on the wire next year for fruiting. We call thesequot;renewal spurs.quot;
Best Liquid Fertilizer To Grow Huge Plants in Your Garden
Alright! This is John Kohler with growingyourgreens .Today I have another exiting episode for you. Once again, on another field trip, we'rehere in West Palm beach, Florida. We're at Hippocrates health institute. And whatwe're going to check out today is their organic farming operation as well as theirlittle green house where they produce some of the food that this health institute feedsthe guests here. Now, if you're called the long time viewers will know I was here maybea six months ago. I like to come to south Florida for the winter when it gets freezingin other parts of the world. Now I know many of you guys are still under frost and so youmight want to visit south Florida and come
to Hippocrates for a nice vacation and cleansingand detox for vacation. But the reason why I'm here today is to share you guys nottheir garden because I did that once again 6 months ago, but I want to share with youguys today is one of the reasons why their garden here in south Florida is so successful.I know many of you guys viewing right now might actually live in south Florida or otherplaces and your garden just doesn't grow like some of the ones you've seen on mytutorials. And that's because they do certain things in their gardens like the best practicesto get the best growing results. So we're going to today, share with you guys one ofthe ways that you could get the best growing
results in your garden no matter where youlive. So the first thing we're going to do is we're going to go ahead and take alook at this amazing garden. All right, so what we're looking at nowis the Hippocrates farm here. They basically have a lot of different rows growing a lotof different crops here. Looks like they got some amazing 2 feet tall plus collard greens.They got sweet potatoes over there. They got some dinosaur kale here. And just all kindsof cool stuff. There's broccoli and cauliflower are over in the distance. This farm has beenreally productive. All the crops look nice and green, and there's actually very fewpest problems that I have actually noticed.
I mean yeah, there's a few holes and stuff,and that's just going to happen when you're growing organically, but you know the bugsaren't eating everything alive. There's a lot of bugs here in south Florida as wellas maybe where you live, and it's really important to build your soil so that yourplants could weather the storm. Think about it, you're only as healthy as the foodsyou eat. If you're eating foods that are junk foods, fast foods, processed foods, wherethey process all the nutrition out of it, you're not going to be as healthy as somebodywho eats a nice, whole food diet rich in fresh fruits and fresh vegetables, especially onesthat you're growing at home in the best
soil. So they really worked to build the soilup here, because check it out. I mean this soil down here, look at that. I mean, thatsand, their growing all this stuff pretty much in some enriched sand without a lot ofcompost. I mean, this bed here looks like it's mostly sand. How can they do thiséWhat makes this possibleé Well let me tell you. It's one of the most important plantnutrients that you could have. Let me go ahead over and show you guys what that is.So now we're taking a look at actually how this whole garden is watered right out ofthese faucets here. The garden is watered and they water out of the hose but one ofthe special things their doing here is their
actually injecting a fertilizer, but it'snot a fertilizer that you would think of, into the whole watering system so that thewhole garden gets watered with this special fertilizer that's been giving them amazingresults. Now this fertilizer is not really anything special. Most farmers and most gardenersdon't actually add this fertilizer. What it is is simply minerals. And you might bethinking, John, I put NPK in my garden. It's on every bag and there's those numbers,101010, 151515. In a lot of cases actually, they're not naturally derived minerals,they're made from petro chemicals and stuff, and I don't recommend you guys use thatkind of stuff. What we're talking about
Growing Grapes in Texas Jim Kamas Central Texas Gardener
I love Tait Moring's sense ofgardening style. Thanks so much for opening your gates for us. Right now we're going to talk aboutgrowing grapes. One of the hottest topics here in Texas because of all the wineries. We have Jim Kamas with us. It's great to have you back on theprogram. Welcome. Thanks, Tom, I appreciate it. Welcome back to Central Texas Gardener. You've just published a great new bookGrowing Grapes in Texas.
Congratulations on that! Thanks a lot. It took a couple years to get done, but I'm I'm pretty happy with it. Well you know, like I said, it's a hottopic. A lot of people are very interested in growing grapes in their backyard. Maybe one ofthose famous table grapes, like Concord or something like that. Well Concord ispretty tough to grow here. Concord likes acid soils which we don'thave. And it's much more adapted a cooler climates. If you wanted to grow Fredonia or some of the other lebrusca types, they'll work, but
Concord is a pretty tough one to grow here. Ok, well your book is filled with tips aboutvarieties and things like that. Let's focus on that home grower. You know , I know for example I go out to hillcountry every now and again to go to Fredericksburg, places around there. And I see wineries springing up like mushrooms now. And it kinda makes me wanna grow grapeshere in town. What does a home gardner need to know to get startedé Well if you're a homeowner and you want to grow enough vines to produce a little bit of wine
my advice is plant what you like. If you're planting a commercial vineyards we're going to have a very different discussion. But if you like Merlot, plant Merlot. If you like Syrah, plant Syrah. For smallscale, you have no big economicinvestment, so plant what you like and go with that. Yeah okay, that makes sense. In terms of the space needs, the sun,
all those kinds of things, grapes arerather particular and disease prone. Yes. So let's give people an idea of whatthe basics are that they would need to have any kind of success. Sure. Commercially our rows are spaced nine to ten feet apart, but in the backyard if you are maintaining the row centers with alawnmower or something, you can place the rows as close as six feet apart.And you can also go as tight as five to six feet between vines. You can put a lot of vines in arelatively small space.
So small space is OK. When we talk about the rows, we are talking about providing structures on which the the vines can grow and supportthemselves. Yes, a lot of times in California you'll see these free standing vines that are called head pruned vines. They don't do very well here because we need to keep our vines up off the ground because it rains here duringthe summer and they are very disease prone as you mentioned.