Caring for Young Grape Vines
My name is David Handley, I'm with the Universityof Maine Cooperative Extension, and we're here to talk about how to prune and traina young grapevine. This is a vine that was planted last spring. We got it from a dormantplant, or rooted cutting, and you can see the original part of the planting right here.This is what we got from the nursery, with a good root system under it. We planted it,and we had a bud break and some vine growth. This is last year's growth right here. Thiswas a green shoot. Typically, you may get more than one shoot developing. You may haveseveral buds on here. We want to prune this back to one strong vine, your strongest one.We're going to arrange for that to be tied
up to a trellis, because this particular vineis what's going to become our permanent trunk, or the permanent part of the plant that'sgoing to be with us for the life of the planting. We want to make sure it's the strongest ofthe vines that we can choose from. Any other one that developed that's very weak, we canjust cut that out, select our best one. The time of year to make these cuts are whenthe canes are dormant, and this is going to be really any time after the new year, untilthey bud out in late March, early April. We hope in the first year that we get enoughgood growth that we can tie it to the lower trellis wire.Typically here in Maine, we're going to be
pruning to either a four arm kniffin trainingsystem, or an umbrella kniffin training system. Those trellises consist of two wires, oneset at about two and a half feet, and a second wire set at about five feet.We hope in the first year that we're going to get enough good growth to reach at leastthe bottom wire, but in order to make sure it's growing straight, you can see we supportedthis with a small bamboo pole. Any kind of planting stake will work, and we just tiethat vine up as it grows, rather than let it grow along the ground where it can getrot problems, and not develop a nice straight growth like we want. We tie it up, just likeyou'd tie up a beef steak tomato, get the
growth that you want.As I said, we've got pretty good buds here, reaching up to the first wire. You can seethat I actually make it to the top wire, but you can see the growth up here is very scrawnyand spindly, and isn't really going to lead to a good, strong trunk. I'd rather actuallystart new growth for reaching to this top wire for next year.What that means is that I'm actually going to cut this off here, rather low, to try toget this bud here to break and give me a much stronger shoot to develop my trunk to thetop wire next year. I can just take that there, and then, instead of using the bamboo polethis year, I can just tie it to the wire.
This bud will hopefully break, and give mea good, strong shoot, that I'm going to reach the second wire next year. Of course, thesebuds lower down will also break, and if this one happens to be weak, I may select one ofthese. But, if this bud does turn out to be a strong shoot, I'll be cutting these offnext winter and getting my single trunk back up to the top wire.Next year, when this does reach the top wire, eventually what we'll be doing is taking oneyear old cane, and either draping it over this top wire and connecting it to the bottomwire in an umbrella kniffin, or we'll be taking one cane at the top wire on each side, andone cane at the bottom wire on each side,
to create four arms of one year old growth,for a four\uc0\u8209 arm kniffin system. Both systems work pretty well for concretetype grapes here in a cold climate like Maine.
Pruning grape vines in Minnesota
gt;gt;TOM VAN DER LINDEN: It's spring in Minnesota,a great time to prune grape vines. Proper
pruning of grape vines means better grapes.And better grapes mean better wine. We'll cover basic pruning for a northern climate.For details on how to prune for your climate, check with your state university extension. Year one, we take the initial shoot and wetrain it into a trunk. Year two, we pick two healthy shoots and we train them to our trellis.We'll take the two healthiest shoots and train them on the trellis to form a cordon. We'llprune off the other shoots leaving just the trunk and the cordons. To review quickly,our first shoot we train into a trunk in year one, then in year two we take our two bestshoots and we train them to the trellis to
make cordons. Year three, the trunk of our vine is gainingstrength and circumference. We have cordons that are now trained to a trellis and offeach cordon we have new shoots. Toast yourself, you've learned three new terms.We have trunk, cordon and shoot. Now we'll learn three new terms, and then we'll moveon. The top of a trunk where it stops is calledthe head of the vine, and this vineyard for this particular grape the head is about fourfeet off the ground. You'll see vineyards where the head is higher or lower dependingon the use of the grape, the kind of trellis they're using. So it'll be okay to have differentheights.
In spring, a new green shoot grows from ourcordon. And now after the leaves have fallen in the fall, the shoot becomes a cane. Forspring pruning, we're going to take last year's cane, and when we clip it again, it will becomea spur. Working on a little older vine, here's thehead and the nice, thick trunk. We have a cane, and then a spur, and then a cane, andthen a spur. Don't worry, you'll soon get the hang of it. Taking a closeup look, we have the cordonhere, and we have a shoot from last year coming off and we need to shorten the shoot now inspring to make a spur. so that we can control
our fruit load. Let's count buds: we havea bud here, we have a bud here, we have a bud here, and we have a bud here, and so forth.On some varieties, this bud close to the cordon is not fruitful so we won't count those buds.We'll count first a bud here and a bud here and make our cut out here. In other varietieswe will need to count this bud as one, two, and we'll make our cut here. Whatever youdo, you'll want to keep good records so when you go back into your vineyard you can seehow the fruit responded to your pruning. So let's count the buds on this cane. We haveone, two, three buds, and we're looking for two. So we have one bud, two buds, and weclip there.
We need to prune this vine to control boththe fruit load and the sun exposure. It's important in a northern climate to get goodsun exposure on your grapes so that they ripen fully. This is a Frontenac vine that's growingand the cordons are growing along the upper trellis wire. So let's estimate the fruitload on this particular vine. We have seven fruiting spurs on each cordon, and each spurhas two buds. Now each bud will produce two clusters of grapes. We can look up the grapevariety we're growing and we can find out what an average cluster will weigh. In thiscase, they will weigh about four ounces. First, simply convert pounds of grapes toounces. Next, divide number of ounces by the number
How To Grow Lots of Grape Vines for FREE
Every year I try to add as many edible plantsto my garden as I can, while spending as little money as possible. Most of my gardening budgetgoes to buying plants. Today, I want to show you a technique that you can use to get alot of grape vines for very little cost, if any cost at all, as long as you or one ofyour neighbors or friends has a existing grape vine. Really, the only three materials you're goingto need for this project are a knife, a pot with some potting soil or just compost fromyour yard. That what I used. And of course, you're going to need the grape vine (for thecuttings). It's best if you try this before
the grape vine starts to leaf out, when it'sin the dormant state during the winter. Alright, so basically every year, you're probablygoing to prune a little bit of your grape vine, just to keep it in check and make surethe shape is how you want it to be as well as keeping it growing in the direction thatyou want. Well, you can take these cuttingsthese trimmingsfrom your grape vine and if they'reabout three nodes longsee, here's one node right here, and here's another node, and anothernodeyou're going to at least three nodes, if not four to five nodes. What you want to do on the end of your cutting,once you have it off the vine, is take one
end and shave off some of the hard outer barkof the vine, like so. It's going to expose the kind of fleshy, softer green wood that'son the inside of this cutting. That's going to make your vine more likely to root by exposingthis tender green area. I forget the exact name of it, but your vine will want to rootafter taking some damage to the outer layer of bark. So once you have your bark exposedthe greenfleshy inner part exposedyou're going to take your potting soil or compost, whateveryou're using, and stick it down into the soil. the damaged part of the cutting. And justmake sure it's nice and firm in the pot. Then
you're going to water it. Give it a reallygood watering and maybe put some mulch on it to keep it moist through the season. Andyour grape vinethe actual vine in the groundis going to leaf out first, so if it doesn'tstart to leaf out immediately, don't panic. It's gonna take a little bit longer for thecutting to actually leaf out because it's a cutting. it's not the actual plant. Ithas to develop a root system to feed the leaves before it can actually focus on growing intoa new plant. Just be patient. So then, after a few weeks, you'll probablynotice your main grape vine leafing out already. You're gonna see something like this. See,it's a new little leaf growing out of the
node on one of the cuttings I've already made.And it's gonna keep growing and develop a root system and the leaves will get bigger.And eventually, you'll have a cutting that's like THIS. Seeé It's forming new leaves oneach of the nodes. And so you just leave it in those pots, and the roots will start toform in the pot. I would recommend leaving it in for at least a whole season, about ayear, before actually transplanting it to the garden, just to make sure it's well established. If you notice that your grape vine cuttingis starting to leaf out, and it's well before your last frost date, and you anticipate frost,I would take your cutting inside, because
while the main grape vine may be able to handlethe damage from a late frost, your cutting won't survive, because it's so delicate andstill establishing. So if you notice that, I would take the cutting inside. that'swhat I've been doing. But other than that, once your vine establishes you'll have anotherwhole free grape vine to grow anywhere you please in your yard. And you can even givethem away! I've had about a 75% success rate with this method and I didn't spend anything.I put some compost in a pot, cut some of my vine off just from normal yeartoyear pruning,and not I have more grape vines! Well, I hope you found this short guide usefuland if you did, please consider subscribing