Growing Grapes in Texas Jim Kamas Central Texas Gardener
I love Tait Moring's sense ofgardening style. Thanks so much for opening your gates for us. Right now we're going to talk aboutgrowing grapes. One of the hottest topics here in Texas because of all the wineries. We have Jim Kamas with us. It's great to have you back on theprogram. Welcome. Thanks, Tom, I appreciate it. Welcome back to Central Texas Gardener. You've just published a great new bookGrowing Grapes in Texas.
Congratulations on that! Thanks a lot. It took a couple years to get done, but I'm I'm pretty happy with it. Well you know, like I said, it's a hottopic. A lot of people are very interested in growing grapes in their backyard. Maybe one ofthose famous table grapes, like Concord or something like that. Well Concord ispretty tough to grow here. Concord likes acid soils which we don'thave. And it's much more adapted a cooler climates. If you wanted to grow Fredonia or some of the other lebrusca types, they'll work, but
Concord is a pretty tough one to grow here. Ok, well your book is filled with tips aboutvarieties and things like that. Let's focus on that home grower. You know , I know for example I go out to hillcountry every now and again to go to Fredericksburg, places around there. And I see wineries springing up like mushrooms now. And it kinda makes me wanna grow grapeshere in town. What does a home gardner need to know to get startedé Well if you're a homeowner and you want to grow enough vines to produce a little bit of wine
my advice is plant what you like. If you're planting a commercial vineyards we're going to have a very different discussion. But if you like Merlot, plant Merlot. If you like Syrah, plant Syrah. For smallscale, you have no big economicinvestment, so plant what you like and go with that. Yeah okay, that makes sense. In terms of the space needs, the sun,
all those kinds of things, grapes arerather particular and disease prone. Yes. So let's give people an idea of whatthe basics are that they would need to have any kind of success. Sure. Commercially our rows are spaced nine to ten feet apart, but in the backyard if you are maintaining the row centers with alawnmower or something, you can place the rows as close as six feet apart.And you can also go as tight as five to six feet between vines. You can put a lot of vines in arelatively small space.
So small space is OK. When we talk about the rows, we are talking about providing structures on which the the vines can grow and supportthemselves. Yes, a lot of times in California you'll see these free standing vines that are called head pruned vines. They don't do very well here because we need to keep our vines up off the ground because it rains here duringthe summer and they are very disease prone as you mentioned.
Plant Hormones Lesson 17
One of the topics that can appear a littlebit intimidating at first is the topic of plant hormones. The most well known plant hormone is probablyauxins, AUXIN. Auxins are what cause plants to grow towards the light. It's a naturallyoccurring hormone that is present in the plant material in the parts of the plant materialthat are closest to the light. As the plant grows toward the light, the auxins in thatpart of the plant material start to get used up. Essentially auxins are a growth regulatorthat allows plants to intelligently move towards the site of their power, light sources, whichfacilitate their metabolism, their photosynthesis.
How does that relate to the daytoday cultivationof plantsé For example when we prune the top of the plant,when we top it or pinch it, we are removing what we call the apical meristem, and thisis where the auxins are present in the highest concentrations. By removing that, we allowthe auxins to be distributed throughout the plant, which causes the multiplication ofgrowing tops. This can be very beneficial for establishing many tops on a plant so wecan have high flower production. Another aspect in which auxins affect ourdaytoday gardening is when we're rooting. We use synthetic auxins, which are presentin the majority of our rooting hormones to
stimulate root growth. Another popular hormone that gets used iscalled cytokinin and generally found in some types of seaweed. What cytokinin seaweedsare going to do is cause lateral growth. Cytokinin is responsible for bushiness of a plant. Productslike Ocean Magic, which contain high levels of cytokinin, can be utilized intelligentlyby the gardener during certain circumstances. For example, let's say you want to makea whole bunch of cuttings and our mother plant doesn't have enough shoots. We could doa full application of a cytokinin seaweed and shoots will come out of everywhere. We'dhave an abundance of plant material to select
for cuttings. Now a situation where we would not want touse a cytokinin product would be for example right before we move into the flowering process.If we were to spray a cytokinin product right before we move into flower, we would get somany shoots coming off of the plant material that we would have the biggest pruning jobof our life; otherwise we would end up with a million little flowers, which is not whatany of us are looking for. One of my maxims is, â€œDon't grow littleflowers.â€� We are looking to direct our plant's energy to the biggest, most premium AAA flowersites, so we generally cut off small flowers,
so we certainly would not want to allow theplant to produce excessive flower sites during the beginning of its flower period. Another hormone that has been used historicallyis called gibberellic acid, sometimes referred to as GA. It has over 120 different formsthat occur in nature. It is hard to say what forms exactly are in some of the productsthat we use, and it's not always listed on the label. But in general, gibberellicacid will stimulate very intense powerful vegetative growth. It can be responsible forstem elongation, fruit and flower production. It has been used historically to increaseflower production.
It is known that gibberellic acid is â€œpermissibleâ€�in food products in parts per billion. As to how much it's actually permissible inother medicinal plant materials has not been established and we don't always know exactlywhat levels are present in the products that we use containing gibberellic acid. Another hormone that you might occasionallypotentially come in contact with and could affect you would be ethylene gas. Now thisis nature's â€œdeath hormone.â€� It's a ripening hormone. A scenario where this could affect you, forexample let's say you had a veg room that
Biology 1B Lecture Plant hormones and growth regulatio
PROFESSOR: WELCOME BACK. AND I THINK THATSTARTING OUT TODAY WE SHOULD PROBABLY DECIDE ON A REVIEW SESSION.OKAY, SO HOW MANY PEOPLE, WE HAVE TO DO IT THIS WEEK BECAUSEUNFORTUNATELY NEXT WEEK THE ROOM'S NOT AVAILABLE. AND SO HOWMANY PEOPLE WOULD LIKE TO DO IT ON WEDNESDAY AT THIS TIMEé STUDENT: WE CAN'T HEAR YOU BACK HERE. PROFESSOR: OH, OKAY. SO WE NEED TO HOLD AREVIEW SESSION OR I'D LIKE TO, IT'S NOT OBLIGATORY, BUT IT WOULDBE NICE TO HOLD A
REVIEW SESSION. AND IF WE DID IT ON, WE HAVETO DO IT EITHER WEDNESDAY OR FRIDAY OF THIS WEEK. SO HOW MANYFOR WEDNESDAY AGAINé OKAY, HOW ABOUT FRIDAYé IT LOOKS LIKEIT'S WEDNESDAY THEN. SO WE'LL MEET HERE ON WEDNESDAY. ANDI'LL CONTINUE TO HOLD OFFICE HOURS UP TO THE DAY OF THE FINAL.BUT NEXT WEEK I'LL PROBABLY BE IN, I'LL ARRIVE AT THE OFFICEAND IF NOBODY SHOWS UP WITHIN ABOUT, BY ABOUT 20 AFTER,I'M PROBABLY GOING TO LEAVE BECAUSE I DON'T KNOW HOW MANY PEOPLEWILL EVEN BE ON CAMPUS
NEXT WEEK. BUT, SO BE SURE IF YOU COME TOOFFICE HOUR NEXT WEEK THAT YOU SHOW UP WITHIN THE FIRST 10 MINUTES,LIKE BETWEEN 10 AFTER AND 20 AFTER. AND THE SAME GOES FORTHE DAY OF THE FINAL. ALL RIGHT, SO LAST TIME I GAVE YOU A BIT OFAN INTRODUCTION TO THE WHOLE TOPIC OF SIGNALING IN PLANTS, HOWPLANTS CAN ACTUALLY PERCEIVE STIMULI. WE TALKED ABOUT THE STIMULUSOF LIGHT AND PHOTOPERIODISM IN PARTICULAR, THAT IS PHYSIOLOGICALRESPONSES OF PLANTS TO THE RELATIVE LENGTH OF LIGHT ANDDARKNESS WHICH IS
IMPORTANT WITH REGARD TO FLOWERING IN PARTICULARIS ONE OF THE, THE THING WE MAINLY FOCUSED ON. I JUST WANTTO FINISH UP ON THAT BY POINTING OUT THAT IT'S ACTUALLY NOTTHE, THE LENGTH OF THE DAY THAT'S IMPORTANT BUT IT'S THE UNINTERRUPTEDLENGTH OF THE NIGHT THAT PLANTS ARE ACTUALLY PERCEIVING.AND THIS WAS ESTABLISHED AFTER THE NAME SHORTDAY PLANTAND LONGDAY PLANT WERE ALREADY INGRAINED IN THE LITERATURE.SO THOSE NAMES
PERSIST FOR PLANTS THAT FLOWER DURING SHORTDAYS AND PLANTS THAT FLOWER DURING LONG DAYS. AND AS I MENTIONED,THERE'S SOME PLANTS THAT ARE DAY, DAY NEUTRAL. THEY JUSTFLOWER WHENEVER THEY'RE AT THE PHYSIOLOGICAL STATE TO FLOWER.BUT THE EXPERIMENTS THAT WERE DONE TO DEMONSTRATETHAT THIS IS A, A NIGHTLENGTH RESPONSE RATHER THAN A DAYLENGTHRESPONSE WERE PRETTY ELEGANT. JUST BASICALLY GROWING PLANTSIN A GREENHOUSE SITUATION UNDER CONTROLLED LIGHT. AND WITHA SHORTDAY PLANT
WHICH WOULD NORMALLY FLOWER AFTER THE NIGHTOR AFTER THE DAY LENGTH WENT BELOW A CERTAIN LEVEL IN THE FALLOR THE LATE SUMMER, A BRIEF FLASH OF LIGHT WAS INTRODUCED ABOUTMIDWAY THROUGH THE DARK PERIOD AND THOSE PLANTS THEN WOULD, WOULDFLOWER. SO AND THE SAME SORT OF THING WAS OBSERVED WITH THELONGDAY PLANTS WHICH TYPICALLY WOULD FLOWER WHEN DAY LENGTHREACHES A CERTAIN PERIOD OF TIME, THAT FLOWER IN THE LATE SPRINGOR EARLY SUMMER. AND IT TURNED OUT THAT A BRIEF FLASH OF INTENSELIGHT, JUST THE