Prairie Yard Garden Growing Grapes
(gentle music) Prairie Yard Garden is a production of the University of Minnesota Morris in cooperation with Pioneer Public Television. Closed captioning is provided by Mark and Margaret YackelJuleen in honor of Shalom Hill Farm, a nonprofit rural education retreat center in a beautiful
prairie setting near Windom in southwestern Minnesota. Shalom Hill Farm, shalomhill Did you hear that a new crop is appearing on the prairieé Growing grapes has created an interest among a few individuals who like the challenge of adapting it to our region. Join me on Prairie Yard Garden as we visit a vineyard to learn about the process and challenges
of growing grapes on the prairie. (soft lighthearted music) A new crop has appeared on the prairie: growing grapes And today I have Florian Ledermann with me who's been involved with the process for the last four to five years. Florian welcome to the show and tell me, how did you get interested in growing grapesé ^We got interested actually at the
University of Morris's Horticultural Night. We sat down in a tent and learned that the university just released four new varieties of grapes that are actually coldhardy. And before that, I always kind of figured grapes were the crop that just kind of came up and never really bore and died every winter and died back. So that's what spiked our interest.
And so that very nextspring, we bought five. And they survived and I did a little more research and decided to go with an acre. And a year later, another acre so we ended up with 1,350 vines as a result of that little adventure in Morris. Larry That's interesting. 1,300 vines, how long does it take you
to put all those in the groundé Florian We used family labor. (Florian laughs) So we had, it took us, I think probably when we were planting, it took us about threedays to put one acre in. That would be for the planting. The posts and the trellis system and everything
Pruning Grape Vines
Hi, I'm Tricia, an organic gardener. If you want bunches of grapes on your grapevines this summer, then you need to do your winter pruning. I'll show you how! There are two types of pruning: cane and spur pruning. And both of them should be done late in the season, between January and March. We're gonna start with cane pruning, because all table grapeswill be productive with that method.
For cane pruning, I'm gonna choose one to two canesfrom last year's growth on each side of the vine and I'm going to cut the rest! You can tell the age of a cane by its bark. 1yearold canes have smooth bark,older canes have shaggy bark. When choosing which canes to keep, you're gonna choose a cane that's coming off very close to the trunk, as compared to onethat's coming off of a branch, like this. The canes that you keep should have about 15 buds along the length of the cane. And they should be close to the top of the vine.
Don't choose canes that are too thin or too thick. Choose them when they're about pencil size. I'm gonna tag the canes that I'm gonna keep with this ribbon, and I'm going to cut the rest. I want to make sure and not cut a good cane. These are the 2 fruiting canes that I'm going to keep. For every fruiting cane that I keep, I'm going to cut another cane into a renewal spur. A renewal spur is a cane cut to 2 buds and these buds are going to create next year's fruiting canes. If your cut starts to bleed, don't worry, that's normal. It won't hurt the vine.
After seeing how this vine is shaping up, I don't think I need this cane after all. So you're gonna cut your fruiting cane back to about 15 buds. And if you have any lateral branches coming off this cane, that's the time you would cut them. For grape vines growing on arbors, the first thing you're gonna do is cut off any suckers that are coming offthe main vine or cordon. And then you just want to cane prune. You want to keep one cane and one renewal spur for every 1 2 feet of cordon. This grapevine has been neglected and hasn't been pruned in a couple of years.
So, before I actually start the spur pruning, I'm going to clean it up. Typically, spur prune varieties are trained to a bilateral cordon, which are these thick branches on either side of the trunk. These cordons can be pruned to length, but they're never pruned all the way off, back to the trunk. Mine are maintained at about 3.5 feet. A spur is last year's growth, cut back to 2 buds. Ideally, you're gonna want 7 spurs on each cordon. And on this cordon, I'll probably get close.
On the other cordons, I'll have to wait until next year because this vine was neglected. The canes that make the best spurs are the ones that are going upward, close to the cordon. Prune all the canes to spurs and then select the best 7 for each cordon. Ideally the spurs should be spaced about 6 inches apart. Don't worry if they're not, just strive for some nice spacing between the 7 spurs on each cordon. Even though this is a nice cane, it's growing too far from the cordon, so I'm gonna snip it off. Tame your grapes and Grow Organic for Life!.
Pruning grape vines in Minnesota
gt;gt;TOM VAN DER LINDEN: It's spring in Minnesota,a great time to prune grape vines. Proper
pruning of grape vines means better grapes.And better grapes mean better wine. We'll cover basic pruning for a northern climate.For details on how to prune for your climate, check with your state university extension. Year one, we take the initial shoot and wetrain it into a trunk. Year two, we pick two healthy shoots and we train them to our trellis.We'll take the two healthiest shoots and train them on the trellis to form a cordon. We'llprune off the other shoots leaving just the trunk and the cordons. To review quickly,our first shoot we train into a trunk in year one, then in year two we take our two bestshoots and we train them to the trellis to
make cordons. Year three, the trunk of our vine is gainingstrength and circumference. We have cordons that are now trained to a trellis and offeach cordon we have new shoots. Toast yourself, you've learned three new terms.We have trunk, cordon and shoot. Now we'll learn three new terms, and then we'll moveon. The top of a trunk where it stops is calledthe head of the vine, and this vineyard for this particular grape the head is about fourfeet off the ground. You'll see vineyards where the head is higher or lower dependingon the use of the grape, the kind of trellis they're using. So it'll be okay to have differentheights.
In spring, a new green shoot grows from ourcordon. And now after the leaves have fallen in the fall, the shoot becomes a cane. Forspring pruning, we're going to take last year's cane, and when we clip it again, it will becomea spur. Working on a little older vine, here's thehead and the nice, thick trunk. We have a cane, and then a spur, and then a cane, andthen a spur. Don't worry, you'll soon get the hang of it. Taking a closeup look, we have the cordonhere, and we have a shoot from last year coming off and we need to shorten the shoot now inspring to make a spur. so that we can control
our fruit load. Let's count buds: we havea bud here, we have a bud here, we have a bud here, and we have a bud here, and so forth.On some varieties, this bud close to the cordon is not fruitful so we won't count those buds.We'll count first a bud here and a bud here and make our cut out here. In other varietieswe will need to count this bud as one, two, and we'll make our cut here. Whatever youdo, you'll want to keep good records so when you go back into your vineyard you can seehow the fruit responded to your pruning. So let's count the buds on this cane. We haveone, two, three buds, and we're looking for two. So we have one bud, two buds, and weclip there.
We need to prune this vine to control boththe fruit load and the sun exposure. It's important in a northern climate to get goodsun exposure on your grapes so that they ripen fully. This is a Frontenac vine that's growingand the cordons are growing along the upper trellis wire. So let's estimate the fruitload on this particular vine. We have seven fruiting spurs on each cordon, and each spurhas two buds. Now each bud will produce two clusters of grapes. We can look up the grapevariety we're growing and we can find out what an average cluster will weigh. In thiscase, they will weigh about four ounces. First, simply convert pounds of grapes toounces. Next, divide number of ounces by the number