Umbrella Kniffin System for Growing Grapes
David Handley: I'm David Handley, with theUniversity of Maine Cooperative Extension, and we're here to talk about pruning grapes.Very simple system for farnorthern production. Here in Maine, we need to protect the vinesas best we can through the winter, but at the same time try to get enough light andexposure to the canes that we're going to get good fruit set, and good fruit quality. One of the systems you can use for labruscatype or concord type grapes, which are the ones that do best here in Maine, which isthe umbrella kniffin. As opposed to the four arm kniffin, the umbrella kniffin puts allof its canes up at the top, or the first year
growth that's going to fruit. What we're talking about with cane growthhere is one yearold growth that has a chocolate brown color, and nice smooth bark with budson it. We're going to be saving four canes, plus the permanent trunk, to give us all ofour fruiting structure. Everything else is going to be coming off of here, and that includesanything that fruited last year. You can tell the two yearold canes, or thecanes that fruited last year, because they'll be thicker, and they'll have gray, peelingbark. All of these are going to come off, and we're going to save the one yearold canewith the chocolate brown color, and the smooth
bark. The first step in pruning is to look at ourpermanent trunk and remove all of the two yearold growth, the growth that fruited lastyear, saving a few canes that we'll be using for fruiting this year. Our first step isto cut some of these off, looking at that older bark there. We just cut that out, getit right out of there. This will open up the planting, and that twoyearold wood is not going to fruit. Unless we take it out, we'll find that our fruitingwood gets further and further away from the trunk. Part of the reason we're pruning isto keep that fruiting wood concentrated right
near the trunk. With the umbrella kniffin, which is what we'repruning to here, we're only going to maintain four of those fruiting canes. We want themall concentrated near the top of the trunk, or the top wire on our twowire trellis. We'regoing to take each of the canes that remain behind. As you can see here, here's my nicefruiting cane, smooth bark. All these are buds that are going to breakand give us long, green shoots that will have bunches of grapes on them. We're going todrape them over the top wire, and then we're going to attach them to the bottom wire, togive you that kind of quot;umbrellaquot; look, thus
the name of the system called the quot;umbrellakniffin.quot; Then we're going to cut off the ends of thecanes, so that there's only about 10 buds on each one. We just count those from thetrunk. One, two, three, four, five, six, seven, eight, nine, 10. If I need to leave one ortwo on there to make it reach the bottom wire, that's fine. I'll just go to where I can attachthis to the bottom wire, like that. I need two for the other side, to completeour umbrella. You can see this leaves me with several other fruiting canes, and I need tosave some of those as well, but they don't need to be as long. What I'm calling theseare quot;renewal spurs,quot; because we need the buds
from these shoots to come out and give uscane that we'll be able to put up on the wire next year. For every fruiting cane that I'm leaving behind,I also need to cut some renewal cane, or renewal spurs, to provide us with fruiting wood fornext year. I just cut these back to one or two buds, and if they're not where I wantthem I can cut them off completely. But for every fruiting cane, I need to leave at leastone renewal spur. I tend to leave a couple of extra renewalspurs here in Maine, because I'm very sensitive to the fact that I'm likely to get winterinjury almost every year.
Saint Paul Mountain Vineyards NC Weekend UNCTV
gt;gt;gt; WHEN YOU THINK OF THE NORTHCAROLINA MOUNTAINS, YOU MAY THINK OF PANORAMIC VIEWS ANDWATERFALLS. VINEYARDS MAY NOT BE ONE OF THEFIRST THINGS THAT COMES TO MIND, BUT PRODUCER CLAY JOHNSON SHOWSUS HOW THAT'S CHANGING IN AT LEAST ONE MOUNTAIN COMMUNITY. gt;gt; HENDERSON COUNTY IS NORTHCAROLINA'S APPLE COUNTRY. THOUSANDS OF ACRES OF ORCHARDSCOVER ITS ROLLING HILLS. IT'S ALSO ALAN WARD'S HOME.
HIS FAMILY FARMED THIS AREA FORGENERATIONS. WARD WORKED IN THE FINANCIALSECTOR BUT DECIDED TO LEAVE THAT FIELD FOR A FARM FIELD. gt;gt; DON'T HUNT, FISH OR PLAYGOLF, SO FARMING WAS A NATURAL FOR ME. gt;gt; WARD LOOKED INTO GROWING WINEGRAPES BUT WAS TOLD THIS REGION COULDN'T GROW GOOD GRAPES. gt;gt; SO I KIND OF TAKE OFFENSE ATTHAT AND TOOK THAT AS A
CHALLENGE. gt;gt; WARD DID EXHAUSTIVE RESEARCH. gt;gt; GREATEST LESSON I LEARNED ISTO ASK QUESTIONS AND NOT ASSUME AND TO ASK QUESTIONS FROM THOSETHAT KNOW. gt;gt; AND HE LEARNED HE COULD GROWA WIDE VARIETY OF GRAPES HERE. gt;gt; WE DO HAVE SOME OF THE BESTSOILS HERE THAT ARE VERY SIMILAR TO THE SOILS IN FRANCE, IN THEBURGUNDY REGION. gt;gt; THE HIGH ELEVATIONS CAN BE ACHALLENGE.
gt;gt; WE DO HAVE HIGH ELEVATIONS,BUT WE'RE SO FAR SOUTH THAT WE'RE VOID OF KIND OF THE SUPERFREEZES AND THE LATE, LATE FROSTS. gt;gt; FOR THE STEEP TERRAIN, WARDBOUGHT THESE ITALIAN VINEYARD TRACTORS. THEY ARE NARROW AND LOW TO THEGROUND. gt;gt; AND THEY ARTICULATE IN THECENTER, LIKE IF THIS IS THE CAB AND THIS IS THE CHASSIS WHERETHE ENGINE IS, YOU HIT A A
ROCK OR A HOLE, THESE THINGSARTICULATE. SO IT WOULD BE VERY HARD TO TURNTHEM OVER UNLESS YOU DROVE THEM OFF A CLIFF. gt;gt; WARD'S YEARS OF RESEARCH ANDWORK PAID OFF. IN 2012, HE OPENED SAINT PAULMOUNTAIN VINEYARDS. IT'S THE FIRST COMMERCIALVINEYARD AND WINERY IN HENDERSON COUNTY. HE'S GROWING 14 VARIETIES OFGRAPES, MOSTLY FRENCH VINIFERA,
AS WELL AS SOME GERMAN ANDAUSTRIAN VARIATIONS. THE DRY RIESLING IS ONE OF THEMOST POPULAR. gt;gt; HAS A VERY HONEYSUCKLE NOSETO IT. SO WHEN YOU SMELL IT, YOU THINKIT'S GOING TO BE SWEET, BUT THEN ON THE PALATE IT'S VERY DRY. gt;gt; IT PAIRS WELL WITH POULTRY. THE CABERNET SAUVIGNON IS A RICHRED WITH A TASTE OF BLACK CHERRY AND A HINT OF SPICE.