Growing Grapes Zone 4

Serving Growing Ohios Grape and Wine Industry

Last January, January 6ththe official day of the polar vortex we experienced really damaging temperatures.Anywhere from around twenty below zero to about sixteen below zerowhere it killed the fruiting buds and it killed actual grape vines.And we've never experienced any damage like this before.And we've never we really didn't know the extentof the damage on the vines until April May in that time frame when we didn't see anybuds developing and even some of thetrunks cracked.

But the impact of that was dramaticwe have no crop at all in our vinifera and we grow varieties like Chardonnay, PinotNoir, Cabernet Franc, Rieslingand without any grapes, we were forced to buya lot of grapes. But it's had a huge impactas far as the grape production not to mention the actual wine losswhich is two or three years spanning. Because in some of the vineyardsthat will have to be replaced from the ground up

with new vines we will not get the first crop is three to four years out.So the impact is just dramatic and millions and millions of dollars.Actually in the viticulture program at Ohio Stateone of our focus of the research is cold hardiness of grapes.So really that's one of my expertise in this fieldof learning more about how grapes cope with freezing with cold in general.After this cold event our growers really needed a lot of help in terms of how to not onlyassess

the damage but also how to deal with the vinesthat are damaged. And we conducted a lot of workshops just toshow them how to prune the vines. Our relationship with Ohio State goes wayback in the 1980'sWe've had a long standing relationship with ongoing research in the wineryand in the vineyards. Currently with Imed Damiour research stems lately from the cold winter vortexwhere we've had a lot of the vines killed and damagedfrom the minus twenty degree temperatures.

Current research is kind of involved tothe extent of the damage to determine the actual damage andto have pruning studies done to see what was the best way to prunethese injured vines. We have not had temperatures that coldsince 1994 here and myself and a lot of the grape growershave not experienced this cold damage. So we need research to help uskind of figure out what's the next step and see what our future is in these vineyards.

How to Grow Kiwi

Hi, I'm Tricia, an organic gardener. Today I'm going to plant a kiwi vine. Kiwis are originally from Asia, but did you know that you can plant one right here in North America in your backyardé One kiwi vine will produce 50 100 pounds of fruit! Site selection is important. You want to put kiwis in full sun, but you don't want to plant them in any kind of cold microclimate, because even though they're hardy down to zone 4, which is about 30 degrees below zero, they can get frost damage after they break dormancy.

They must have well drained soil. Dig a hole the same size as the root system. So we're going to put the kiwi in the hole and we don't wanna add any fertilizer. These roots can easily be burned bynitrogen. Plant the kiwi to the same level it was planted in the nursery. Don't mound up the the soil around the trunk, because that can kill the vine. Kiwis are vines and they're trained and prunedlike the Muscadine grapes, and if you're only planting one like I am,make sure it's self pollinating.

Pergolas, or a Tbar trellis, are the twomost popular ways of trellising kiwis, but feel free to experiment. The only requirement is that you're ableto get to them to prune easily. Prune the vine back to a single cane andthat's going to be our trunk. Like a grape vine, a kiwi vine should betrained with a nice straight trunk. I'm putting in this bamboo stake to helptrain my little vine. Don't allow your kiwi to wrap around thestake however. Make sure and give your kiwi fruit a lot of water. I'm installing this Olson sprinkler, which works great.

Your hardy kiwi vine will produce fuzzless fruit a little smaller than what you find in the grocery store, and if you need to protect it from frost after it breaks dormancy, try these Agribon frost blanketsand Grow Organic for Life!.

Toward a Donothing Gardening pt 2 Edible Perennials Lazy Gardening

What could be better than harvesting crops without having to dig the soil and sow seeds every yearé Growing edible perennials is as close to do nothing gardening as you can get. Once established, they come back year after year and produce abundant harvests with very little effort. Just think of all the chores required to grow annuals. Every year we have to save, buy, or otherwise acquire and store seeds. For cold sensitive crops like tomatoes and peppers, we have to start them in the grow room, nurture them for several weeks there, water them, fight off fungus gnats, and adjust the lights as they grow.

Then before being transplanted into the garden, they have to be hardened off gradually outside over the course of several days. Finally, we have to transplant them into the garden and hope that an unexpected cold snap doesn't wipe them out. Though many annuals are well worth the effort and we'll continue to grow them, we can get closer to our ideal of a donothing garden by growing more perennials and fewer annuals. We currently have over 30 different edible perennials in our small garden, everything from strawberries and blackberries,

to good king henry and sorrel, to oregano and sage. Once established, most perennials require less work than annuals. Their deeper roots are better able to access nutrients and moisture, so they require less fertilizer and water. In most cases, a yearly application of compost and mulch provides all the nutrients they need. And because the soil is mulched and undisturbed, fewer weeds emerge and mycorrhizal fungi thrive, reducing weeding and fertilization requirements.

Another advantage is that many edible perennials have long growing seasons. French sorrel is one of the first plants to emerge in spring, and we harvest red veined sorrel and Egyptian walking onions most of the year even during much of the winter under protection. Similarly, we can harvest sunchokes in the fall, winter, and spring, except when the ground is frozen. Last year we added 6 new perennials that are hardy to zone 5: French sorrel, Good King Henry, sunchokes, asparagus, paw paw trees, and an Asian pear tree.

This year we're adding 3 more plus 1 that is hardy to zone 6, but may survive the winter under protection. Let's start with 2 perennials that are also cold hardy. Minutina is an herb that can produce all winter long under protection here in zone 5. Its leaves are eaten as greens in salads. Sylvetta Arugula is a perennial arugula in zones 5 to 9. We plan to grow minutina and sylvetta Arugula in the new hoop house I'm building this year. Lovage is an herb that that is perennial in zones 4 to 9

and produces stalks similar to celery and leaves that can be used like parsley. Finally, we purchased seeds for an Artichoke that is hardy to zone 6, but we hope to grow it here in zone 5 under the protection of cold frame and mulch. As we continue to plant more and more edible perennials, we hope to get closer and closer to our ideal of a donothing garden. If you'd like to learn more about growing perennial vegetables, I've provided a link the the Global Inventory of Perennial Vegetables in the description. This document has information on perennials that can be grown in a wide variety of climates. I've also included a list of all the perennials we're growing

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