Growing Grapes Ppt

Four Arm Kniffin System for Growing Grapes

David Handley: I'm David Handley, vegetableand small fruit specialist with the University of Maine Cooperative Extension. Today we'regoing to be talking about a simple system for pruning hardy grapes here in Maine. The pruning system I like to use is very simple.It keeps the plant open, so it gets light in the summer time, but it also protects theplant a little bit in the winter. This system works best with concord type or labrusca typegrapes, which are the grapes that tend to grow best in Maine. There's really a couple of systems that willwork well for labrusca type grapes. The first

one I want to talk about is the four arm kniffin,and that's what we're going to prune first. The four arm kniffin consists of a perennialtrunk, which goes from the ground right up to a top wire, which is set at about fivefeet. Coming off of this trunk, we will have four arms, or canes, oneyear old growth.Two on the top wire, running each side of the top wire, and two on a lower wire. Thislower wire should be set at about two and a half feet off the ground. Every year, we're going to come in and pruneit so we continue to have a perennial trunk, but only four one yearold trunks to producethe fruit.

Here is our permanent trunk. You can see here,this is a cane from last year. Two yearold cane, this was our fruiting cane last summer,and you can see the difference. Here's this year's cane, that nice chocolate brown colorand smooth bark, and here we go with the older cane, the two yearold cane. The bark is startingto peel, and has more of a gray look to it, so we know that this particular shoot isn'tgoing to fruit again. It's the one yearold shoots that come off it that will fruit. This is going to get pruned out, so that wecan keep our fruiting wood closer to the trunk. We'll just take that back to a good fruitingshoot, and we'll start to cut it out. This

is where it gets fun. We need to wrestle thisout of the trellis, and of course, all these little tendrils have tied it up and aroundmost of the growth that's there. It takes a little bit of cutting, but be careful notto break the fruiting canes that you want to leave behind. Pull it off, and that will open the plantingup so we can see what we have left for good fruiting wood for this year. We've taken offthe four fruiting canes that we left last year, and you can see pretty much all that'sleft, at this point, is the green shoots from last year, that will provide us with goodfruit for this year.

Now we need to choose which four we want toput up. We're going to have four canes. One, two, three, four. Two for the lower wire,two for the upper wire, each heading off in different directions. What I want to look for in this case is canethat's got this nice chocolate brown color, and is about 38 of an inch in diameter. Aboutthe width of your little finger. If it's thinner than that, if it's very weak, it won't producegood fruit. Thin stuff like this, less than 38 of an inch in diameter, we'll just cutthat right out. Here we've got one that's going to go in thisdirection, that looks very nice. I'm going

to count, remember we want about 10 buds onit, so we'll count our buds. One, two, three, four, five, six, seven, eight, nine, 10. ThenI just cut out beyond that, because the weaker stuff at the very end isn't going to producevery good fruit. I have my four arms, but you can see I stillhave some leftover canes. What I'm going to use these for are what we call quot;renewal spurs.quot;I'm going to cut these back so that they just have one or two buds on them. What I'm goingto use these buds for, the green shoots that will emerge from these buds and grow out,will be the canes that I'll be putting on the wire next year for fruiting. We call thesequot;renewal spurs.quot;

Wine and Cheese Powerpoint 2007

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Max Foster ABARES Horticulture the big picture

Ah thank you John, my role in in the session today is to paint the big picture for Australian horticulture but as John said there is a consistant theme that runs throughout the session. The next presenter is Matt and Roger will be talking about the healthiness of a varied

diet of fresh fruit nut and vegetables. It could turn our lives around. But I'll be making the point of the strength and the future prospects of this industry are based on this demand for fresh and varied product that will grow as consumer incomes grows throughout the world. My big picture of the Australian horticulture industry is a triptych of 3 panels. Firstly I outline the nature of Australian horticulture, I then look at some limited evidence on the financial performance of the Australian horticulture industry. And I finish up

with an outline of ABARES assessment of the future prospects for this industry, that takes into account world horticulture trends and challenges. So I'll start off with the nature of Australian horticulture. Horticulture production is organised around the many different climate zones in Australia so that the many different producing regions has it's particular window for supplying the fresh market or processors. The great bulk of production of fruit, nut and vegetables occures in the temperate and sub tropic regions. But tropic and

grass land regions are also important producers. The so called grass land producing regions, mostly the irrigated regions on the lower Murray River, but all the Gascoigne River of Western Australia. The fruit and vegetable processing industries have been declining in recent years. Employment in fruit and vegetable processing peeked in 200203 at about 13,400 persons. But has since declined to less than 10,000 persons. Increasingly the fruit and vegetable markets are oriented towards producing for the fresh markets.

Now this is a very diverse industry, but broadly the industry can be considered as being made up of fruit, nut and vegetable and wine grape components and another horticulture component sector. The Australian horticulture industry including the wine grape industry accounted for 21% of the gross value of Australian agriculture in 200910. Fruit and nuts made up about 46% of this value if you include wine grapes. A further 35% is vegetables. Other horticulture largely made up of nursery

cut flowers, cultivated turf and speacialty crops, like Oil Seed Poppy and Pyrethrum Daisy accounted for the remaining 20%. Over the last 20 years the gross value of Australian vegetable production increased at an average annual rate of 2.6%, while the gross value of fruit and nut production, excluding wine grapes, increased at 2.2% a year. Now to put this in context, this is much faster than the .6% annual growth rate for the rest of the Australian farm sector. Now the gross value of Australian wine production

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