Four Arm Kniffin System for Growing Grapes
David Handley: I'm David Handley, vegetableand small fruit specialist with the University of Maine Cooperative Extension. Today we'regoing to be talking about a simple system for pruning hardy grapes here in Maine. The pruning system I like to use is very simple.It keeps the plant open, so it gets light in the summer time, but it also protects theplant a little bit in the winter. This system works best with concord type or labrusca typegrapes, which are the grapes that tend to grow best in Maine. There's really a couple of systems that willwork well for labrusca type grapes. The first
one I want to talk about is the four arm kniffin,and that's what we're going to prune first. The four arm kniffin consists of a perennialtrunk, which goes from the ground right up to a top wire, which is set at about fivefeet. Coming off of this trunk, we will have four arms, or canes, oneyear old growth.Two on the top wire, running each side of the top wire, and two on a lower wire. Thislower wire should be set at about two and a half feet off the ground. Every year, we're going to come in and pruneit so we continue to have a perennial trunk, but only four one yearold trunks to producethe fruit.
Here is our permanent trunk. You can see here,this is a cane from last year. Two yearold cane, this was our fruiting cane last summer,and you can see the difference. Here's this year's cane, that nice chocolate brown colorand smooth bark, and here we go with the older cane, the two yearold cane. The bark is startingto peel, and has more of a gray look to it, so we know that this particular shoot isn'tgoing to fruit again. It's the one yearold shoots that come off it that will fruit. This is going to get pruned out, so that wecan keep our fruiting wood closer to the trunk. We'll just take that back to a good fruitingshoot, and we'll start to cut it out. This
is where it gets fun. We need to wrestle thisout of the trellis, and of course, all these little tendrils have tied it up and aroundmost of the growth that's there. It takes a little bit of cutting, but be careful notto break the fruiting canes that you want to leave behind. Pull it off, and that will open the plantingup so we can see what we have left for good fruiting wood for this year. We've taken offthe four fruiting canes that we left last year, and you can see pretty much all that'sleft, at this point, is the green shoots from last year, that will provide us with goodfruit for this year.
Now we need to choose which four we want toput up. We're going to have four canes. One, two, three, four. Two for the lower wire,two for the upper wire, each heading off in different directions. What I want to look for in this case is canethat's got this nice chocolate brown color, and is about 38 of an inch in diameter. Aboutthe width of your little finger. If it's thinner than that, if it's very weak, it won't producegood fruit. Thin stuff like this, less than 38 of an inch in diameter, we'll just cutthat right out. Here we've got one that's going to go in thisdirection, that looks very nice. I'm going
to count, remember we want about 10 buds onit, so we'll count our buds. One, two, three, four, five, six, seven, eight, nine, 10. ThenI just cut out beyond that, because the weaker stuff at the very end isn't going to producevery good fruit. I have my four arms, but you can see I stillhave some leftover canes. What I'm going to use these for are what we call quot;renewal spurs.quot;I'm going to cut these back so that they just have one or two buds on them. What I'm goingto use these buds for, the green shoots that will emerge from these buds and grow out,will be the canes that I'll be putting on the wire next year for fruiting. We call thesequot;renewal spurs.quot;
How to Create Porcelain Doll Bodies Opening Porcelain Doll Mold
So you can see inside the mold hole here howthis is still shiny, and glistening, and wet looking. What we want to see is we want itto look more like the outside part here where it looks drier and doesn't have a sheen toit, so we're going to just let the mold sit here until it gets to that point. So if youlook in the hole you can see that now it's not shining anymore, and it looks pretty driedup, so we're going to very carefully remove our rubber bands, holding the pieces so thatthey don't fall apart before we're ready to take them apart. So when your clay is readyyou should just be able to carefully lift off, and when you lift off your mold piece,you want to pull it straight up so that you
don't mar any of the porcelain. So now we'regoing to remove the other parts, we hope. Geez; okay, she might be not quite ready.So if it doesn't, if the mold doesn't pull off easily, you might want to just let itsit here for a few minutes, because it's not quite ready to be pulled apart. Okay, so Ithink that it's ready to pull the rest of it off, so we're going to carefully pull thisoff, and then this part, oops; going to let this part sit a little, because it's stilla little damp. So it's better just to let it, if you try to pull it before it's readyto be pulled out, you're going to tear your clay, or distort your clay, and even thoughyou think that you put it back in the right
place, the porcelain tends to have a memory,and so it will sometimes warp and twist and turn in the kiln, so never try and force itout of the mold before it's ready. Okay, so you can see where it's starting to sort ofpull away from the edge of the mold, so at this point, I'm going to very carefully takeit out of the mold, and just set it down to kind of rest a little, and get a little harder.
Japanese Wine Koshu Grape
Welcome to Underneath The Bottle I am Michael, and today we are going to talk about grapes. quot;What kind of grapeséquot; You are askingé We are going to talk about Koshu! Koshu is this grape from Japan. It is a Vitis Vinifera. quot;What is thatéquot; You may ask. That is a grape that comes from Europe.
So by saying it is a Vitis Vinifera, a European grape variety. It means it came from there. Righté So, we are talking a thousand years ago. They took it from.ehh. Caau.ca.sus.é So they took it from Cokeausus Cockasus.é cucusususus.
*blaming on the latin language* Which is Georgia, Armenia, Iran and Turkey those kind of places It came from there a thousand years ago then brought it through the silk road, China. and then it established here in Japan. Meanwhile, thousand years later, here we are. the grape variety has adapted to the environment
it was rediscovered in the Yamanashi Prefecture It is the same region where you can find Mt.Fuji .and fun fact for you! I have climbed Mt. Fuji! Koshu is also very light, Delicate I have it in my glass right here It is a really pale looking grape in the glass Personally, I like it
Because it is so polished and clean that is it's uniqueness I'd say it really reflects the Japanese culture and flavors and by saying that is that they have a really clean palate they don't like too complicated things *wine mouth mumble* Koshu makes crisp, acidic and nice wines
As I said, they are delicate typically, low on alcohol So when I am tasting this, I am getting like. Nashi pear It is like a hybrid between apple and pear sometimes it gets a little floral tones citrus minerality