Umbrella Kniffin System for Growing Grapes
David Handley: I'm David Handley, with theUniversity of Maine Cooperative Extension, and we're here to talk about pruning grapes.Very simple system for farnorthern production. Here in Maine, we need to protect the vinesas best we can through the winter, but at the same time try to get enough light andexposure to the canes that we're going to get good fruit set, and good fruit quality. One of the systems you can use for labruscatype or concord type grapes, which are the ones that do best here in Maine, which isthe umbrella kniffin. As opposed to the four arm kniffin, the umbrella kniffin puts allof its canes up at the top, or the first year
growth that's going to fruit. What we're talking about with cane growthhere is one yearold growth that has a chocolate brown color, and nice smooth bark with budson it. We're going to be saving four canes, plus the permanent trunk, to give us all ofour fruiting structure. Everything else is going to be coming off of here, and that includesanything that fruited last year. You can tell the two yearold canes, or thecanes that fruited last year, because they'll be thicker, and they'll have gray, peelingbark. All of these are going to come off, and we're going to save the one yearold canewith the chocolate brown color, and the smooth
bark. The first step in pruning is to look at ourpermanent trunk and remove all of the two yearold growth, the growth that fruited lastyear, saving a few canes that we'll be using for fruiting this year. Our first step isto cut some of these off, looking at that older bark there. We just cut that out, getit right out of there. This will open up the planting, and that twoyearold wood is not going to fruit. Unless we take it out, we'll find that our fruitingwood gets further and further away from the trunk. Part of the reason we're pruning isto keep that fruiting wood concentrated right
near the trunk. With the umbrella kniffin, which is what we'repruning to here, we're only going to maintain four of those fruiting canes. We want themall concentrated near the top of the trunk, or the top wire on our twowire trellis. We'regoing to take each of the canes that remain behind. As you can see here, here's my nicefruiting cane, smooth bark. All these are buds that are going to breakand give us long, green shoots that will have bunches of grapes on them. We're going todrape them over the top wire, and then we're going to attach them to the bottom wire, togive you that kind of quot;umbrellaquot; look, thus
the name of the system called the quot;umbrellakniffin.quot; Then we're going to cut off the ends of thecanes, so that there's only about 10 buds on each one. We just count those from thetrunk. One, two, three, four, five, six, seven, eight, nine, 10. If I need to leave one ortwo on there to make it reach the bottom wire, that's fine. I'll just go to where I can attachthis to the bottom wire, like that. I need two for the other side, to completeour umbrella. You can see this leaves me with several other fruiting canes, and I need tosave some of those as well, but they don't need to be as long. What I'm calling theseare quot;renewal spurs,quot; because we need the buds
from these shoots to come out and give uscane that we'll be able to put up on the wire next year. For every fruiting cane that I'm leaving behind,I also need to cut some renewal cane, or renewal spurs, to provide us with fruiting wood fornext year. I just cut these back to one or two buds, and if they're not where I wantthem I can cut them off completely. But for every fruiting cane, I need to leave at leastone renewal spur. I tend to leave a couple of extra renewalspurs here in Maine, because I'm very sensitive to the fact that I'm likely to get winterinjury almost every year.
In the Field Eps 1 Volatile US cotton market
ï»¿ Brad Haire: Welcome to In the Field. I'm Brad Haire with the University of Georgia College of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences. I'm here today with Don Shurley, Cotton Economist with the University of Georgia Cooperative Extension. Hey Shurley. Don Shurley: Brad, how are you this morningé
Haire: I'm good. Thank you for being with me today. We're going to talk today about cotton acreage in Georgia and the country. We're going to talk about this high ride that's been the U.S. cotton market since, I don't know, late last year. Right, Doné Shurley: $2 cotton at one time last year (Haire: That's right) winter and spring. Haire: Exactly. It's been quite a ride so far. So Don,
what are we looking at right now with the markets â€“ high, low, mediumé Shurley: We're a little over $1; trying to stay above water at $1. We've lost about 40Â¢ a pound, that's the real concern, over the past 6 weeks, since the 1st of July. Haire: Let's talk a minute about supply. What are we looking at with cotton acreage in Georgia and in the country right nowé Shurley: Well, we're going to be up 20, 25% from last year. Georgia will be at 1.45 million acres.
Frankly, I thought we'd be a little better than that. The drought really probably kept us from planting some acreage. There are some acres we didn't get around to replanting; or we planted something else after the drought. Our acreage will be up here in the state as well as nationwide. Production is going to be up as well; that's part of the issues. USDA had the crop pegged at 17 million bales at one time. Then they adjusted it last month in their numbers;
they adjusted it down to 16 million. I think a lot of folks, myself included, are thinking the crop is going to be closer to 15. So the crop continues to shrink. Really the big question is, Brad, not so much about how much we planted but what we're going to end up being able to harvest. The Texas crop is in horrible shape. They may walk away from half that acreage out there. Haire: Now, we've had some recent, again, recent down tick in our
economy; now we've been on a down slope for quite some time. Talk about that a little bit. Also, tell me a little bit about demand for cotton right now; that tends to make the prices go up and down. So tell me a little bit about that. Shurley: Well, you would think with the U.S. crop getting smaller and smaller, you would think that would help bring prices back up. Like I said, we're struggling to maintain above $1. But the demand side has really gotten weak.