Four Arm Kniffin System for Growing Grapes
David Handley: I'm David Handley, vegetableand small fruit specialist with the University of Maine Cooperative Extension. Today we'regoing to be talking about a simple system for pruning hardy grapes here in Maine. The pruning system I like to use is very simple.It keeps the plant open, so it gets light in the summer time, but it also protects theplant a little bit in the winter. This system works best with concord type or labrusca typegrapes, which are the grapes that tend to grow best in Maine. There's really a couple of systems that willwork well for labrusca type grapes. The first
one I want to talk about is the four arm kniffin,and that's what we're going to prune first. The four arm kniffin consists of a perennialtrunk, which goes from the ground right up to a top wire, which is set at about fivefeet. Coming off of this trunk, we will have four arms, or canes, oneyear old growth.Two on the top wire, running each side of the top wire, and two on a lower wire. Thislower wire should be set at about two and a half feet off the ground. Every year, we're going to come in and pruneit so we continue to have a perennial trunk, but only four one yearold trunks to producethe fruit.
Here is our permanent trunk. You can see here,this is a cane from last year. Two yearold cane, this was our fruiting cane last summer,and you can see the difference. Here's this year's cane, that nice chocolate brown colorand smooth bark, and here we go with the older cane, the two yearold cane. The bark is startingto peel, and has more of a gray look to it, so we know that this particular shoot isn'tgoing to fruit again. It's the one yearold shoots that come off it that will fruit. This is going to get pruned out, so that wecan keep our fruiting wood closer to the trunk. We'll just take that back to a good fruitingshoot, and we'll start to cut it out. This
is where it gets fun. We need to wrestle thisout of the trellis, and of course, all these little tendrils have tied it up and aroundmost of the growth that's there. It takes a little bit of cutting, but be careful notto break the fruiting canes that you want to leave behind. Pull it off, and that will open the plantingup so we can see what we have left for good fruiting wood for this year. We've taken offthe four fruiting canes that we left last year, and you can see pretty much all that'sleft, at this point, is the green shoots from last year, that will provide us with goodfruit for this year.
Now we need to choose which four we want toput up. We're going to have four canes. One, two, three, four. Two for the lower wire,two for the upper wire, each heading off in different directions. What I want to look for in this case is canethat's got this nice chocolate brown color, and is about 38 of an inch in diameter. Aboutthe width of your little finger. If it's thinner than that, if it's very weak, it won't producegood fruit. Thin stuff like this, less than 38 of an inch in diameter, we'll just cutthat right out. Here we've got one that's going to go in thisdirection, that looks very nice. I'm going
to count, remember we want about 10 buds onit, so we'll count our buds. One, two, three, four, five, six, seven, eight, nine, 10. ThenI just cut out beyond that, because the weaker stuff at the very end isn't going to producevery good fruit. I have my four arms, but you can see I stillhave some leftover canes. What I'm going to use these for are what we call quot;renewal spurs.quot;I'm going to cut these back so that they just have one or two buds on them. What I'm goingto use these buds for, the green shoots that will emerge from these buds and grow out,will be the canes that I'll be putting on the wire next year for fruiting. We call thesequot;renewal spurs.quot;
Virginia Farming January 10 2014
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TO YOU BY FARM FAMILY.ANOTHER PERSONAL STORY ON FARM FAMILY PEOPLE.COM.FARM FAMILY, THE PEOPLE YOU KNOW.gt;gt; I AM AMY ROSCHER. CRAFT BREWERIES ARE BEING CAPALL OVER THE COMMONWEALTH. BARLEY AND HOPS ARE THE TWO MAININGREDIENTS. TODAY, WE WILL TAKE A LOOK ATCRAFT BREWERIES AND AT VIRGINIA GROWN HOPS AND HOW THEY ARE USEDIN TODAY'S ALES. FINALLY, WE WILL JOIN MARK INTHE GARDEN ON TIPS FOR TIPS
ON SOIL PREPARATION.THAT IS COMING UP ON quot;VIRGINIA FARMING.quot; Â¶BLUE MOUNTAIN BREWERY WAS THE FIRST BREWERY IN VIRGINIA.MANY OTHER BREWERIES HAVE FOLLOWED SUIT, BY BRINGINGUNIQUE BEERS FROM LOCALLY GROWN HOPS.UPON A TIME, VIRGINIA WAS THE HOPS CAPITAL OF THECAPITAL. SPROUTING UP ISAGAIN AS CRAFT AND FARM FOR A
REASON LIKE NELSON COUNTYPOSSIBLE AMOUNT BREWERY ARE GROWING IN RECORD NUMBERS.IF THEY HAVE DONE THIS STATISTICS, BUT WE HAVE TOBE ONE OF THE FASTESTGROWING STATES.IT IS A NEAT TIME. gt;gt; MANY OF THESE NEW BREWERIESARE TAKING A NOTE FROM THE HISTORY BOOKS AND GROWING THEIROWN HOPS AND FRESH INGREDIENTS. HE HOPES TO HAVE HIS TAPSFLOWING BY JUNE. gt;gt; WE WANTED TO GET INTO CRAFTBEER BECAUSE WE LOVE CRAFT BEER.
WE WANTED TO DO SOMETHING UNIQUEAND WE DID IT. THERE ARE VERY FEW FARM DREWRY'SIN THE COUNTRY. THINK ASEOPLE DON'TBEER AS AN AGRICULTURAL PRODUCT. YOU WOULD BE SURPRISED HOWIMPORTANT FARM PRODUCTS ARE TO A BREWMASTER.1.7 FIVERTED WITH ACRES AND ABOUT HALF AN ACRE OFHOP FIELDS. IT IS A TANGIBLE EXPERIENCEABOUT WHAT BEER IS. WANT TON ANYTHING, WESHARE WITH PEOPLE THAT BEER IS
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Virginia Agriculture NASA DEVELOP Summer 2013 Langley Research Center
Develop Summer 2013Virginia Agriculture Analyzing Raster to Make Virginia VineyardsVaster gt;gt; Taylor: Due to the growing success of Virginiawine, the Commonwealth is interested in expanding vineyards across the state. gt;gt; Todd Haymore: We really need to plant moregrapes to keep up with demand because when you're having 810% sales growth a yearobviously you're going to have to have more sources to make the wine and that comes backto the grapes. gt;gt; Taylor: In order to successfully establisha new vineyard, a grape grower must identify
the most suitable growing conditions for grapevines.Grapes require very specific physical and biological conditions for cultivation. Temperatureplays a critical role in grapevine growth, so we met with viticulturalists in Virginiato better understand important temperature parameters. gt;gt; Sonia: So how much does temperature playa roleé gt;gt; Matthew Meyer: Oh a lot. gt;gt; Sarah: Using Land Surface Temperature datacollected by MODIS, an instrument aboard NASAï¿½s Aqua satellite, we sought to enhance currenttemperature data derived from the National
Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration weatherstations. Weather Station data collects air temperature measurements at discrete locationswhich are then interpolated and can overlook conditions such as elevation.MODIS provides continuous data, which accounts for elevation in land surface temperature. gt;gt; Sonia: Ten years of daily MODIS Aqua datawas processed using Python programming and ESRI ArcGIS software. Data was analyzed usingequations from our research and climate parameters important to viticulturalists. gt;gt; Meredith: Our team calculated the numberof growing degree days based on the Winkler
Scale, a common method in viticulture forclassifying temperature regions. Tempranillo, Syrah and Grenache are the grape varietalsconsidered most suitable to Virginiaï¿½s climate. gt;gt; Pete Johns: Our last frost date is April15th. gt;gt;Sonia: How do you know that April 15th isthe last frost dateé gt;gt; Pete: History. This may 14th was a killerfrost in the rest of the state, and they lost the majority of their crops in some areas. gt;gt; Sonia: We also examined the risk of a commondisease known as Pierceï¿½s Disease. Because of its mild winters, Virginia grape growersshould be cautious of this ailment as the
disease can survive through the winter iftemperatures do not dip below 10ï¿½F. gt;gt; Sarah: We also evaluated mean growing seasontemperature, and how this may change over time. Growing season temperatures are importantfor verasion, the onset of ripening in the grape. The formation of sugars and acids inthe grapes may occur too early if temperatures are very warm, or too late if temperaturesare not warm enough. Either fluctuation can affect the quality of wine the grapes willproduce. According to the 4th and most recent report by the Intergovernmental Panel on ClimateChange, there are multiple possible climate change scenarios that could alter annual averagetemperatures by 2099. We calculated and mapped
each scenario for the year 2050. gt;gt; Meredith: Just as temperatures that aretoo warm can affect wine quality, so can temperatures that are too cool. A surprisingly late springfrost can damage budding grapes, and an early fall frost can reduce leaf canopy, interruptthe ripening process, or affect vineï¿½s winter hardiness. gt;gt; Taylor: These maps will be provided tothe Virginia Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, so they can be distributedto Virginia grape growers. Our outputs will help growers make informed decisions aboutselecting an appropriate location for a vineyard