Four Arm Kniffin System for Growing Grapes
David Handley: I'm David Handley, vegetableand small fruit specialist with the University of Maine Cooperative Extension. Today we'regoing to be talking about a simple system for pruning hardy grapes here in Maine. The pruning system I like to use is very simple.It keeps the plant open, so it gets light in the summer time, but it also protects theplant a little bit in the winter. This system works best with concord type or labrusca typegrapes, which are the grapes that tend to grow best in Maine. There's really a couple of systems that willwork well for labrusca type grapes. The first
one I want to talk about is the four arm kniffin,and that's what we're going to prune first. The four arm kniffin consists of a perennialtrunk, which goes from the ground right up to a top wire, which is set at about fivefeet. Coming off of this trunk, we will have four arms, or canes, oneyear old growth.Two on the top wire, running each side of the top wire, and two on a lower wire. Thislower wire should be set at about two and a half feet off the ground. Every year, we're going to come in and pruneit so we continue to have a perennial trunk, but only four one yearold trunks to producethe fruit.
Here is our permanent trunk. You can see here,this is a cane from last year. Two yearold cane, this was our fruiting cane last summer,and you can see the difference. Here's this year's cane, that nice chocolate brown colorand smooth bark, and here we go with the older cane, the two yearold cane. The bark is startingto peel, and has more of a gray look to it, so we know that this particular shoot isn'tgoing to fruit again. It's the one yearold shoots that come off it that will fruit. This is going to get pruned out, so that wecan keep our fruiting wood closer to the trunk. We'll just take that back to a good fruitingshoot, and we'll start to cut it out. This
is where it gets fun. We need to wrestle thisout of the trellis, and of course, all these little tendrils have tied it up and aroundmost of the growth that's there. It takes a little bit of cutting, but be careful notto break the fruiting canes that you want to leave behind. Pull it off, and that will open the plantingup so we can see what we have left for good fruiting wood for this year. We've taken offthe four fruiting canes that we left last year, and you can see pretty much all that'sleft, at this point, is the green shoots from last year, that will provide us with goodfruit for this year.
Now we need to choose which four we want toput up. We're going to have four canes. One, two, three, four. Two for the lower wire,two for the upper wire, each heading off in different directions. What I want to look for in this case is canethat's got this nice chocolate brown color, and is about 38 of an inch in diameter. Aboutthe width of your little finger. If it's thinner than that, if it's very weak, it won't producegood fruit. Thin stuff like this, less than 38 of an inch in diameter, we'll just cutthat right out. Here we've got one that's going to go in thisdirection, that looks very nice. I'm going
to count, remember we want about 10 buds onit, so we'll count our buds. One, two, three, four, five, six, seven, eight, nine, 10. ThenI just cut out beyond that, because the weaker stuff at the very end isn't going to producevery good fruit. I have my four arms, but you can see I stillhave some leftover canes. What I'm going to use these for are what we call quot;renewal spurs.quot;I'm going to cut these back so that they just have one or two buds on them. What I'm goingto use these buds for, the green shoots that will emerge from these buds and grow out,will be the canes that I'll be putting on the wire next year for fruiting. We call thesequot;renewal spurs.quot;
Afl 9 Villa Mondi DOC Soave 2010
Welcome to episode 9 It so happen to be about a white wine again, but for the first time an Italian wine. Today it's about Soave. One of the most famous Italian white wines coming from an area east of the city of Verona. You know: from the Netherlands over the Brenner Pass (Austria), along the lake of Garda, to the left, heading to Venice. After about 20 km past the town of Verona, you can already see the beautiful castle with crenellated city walls and towers from the picturesque village of Soave. According the legend, the famous poet Dante in the 13th century already gave the name Soave to the wines:
Soave means smooth, soft, mild. Soave is one of the major production regions for white wines in Italy and if you buy Soave you should be very sharp There can be top quality, but there is also distasteful liquid and there are wines that cost a couple of euro's and are simply delicious. Vast range of different qualities in different price ranges: On the one hand, Soave Classico from old volcanic soil in the hills around the town of Soave itself and from the village Monteforte d'Alpone. And on the other hand, the usual Soave, often from the lower, flat pieces of vineyards near the Adige river.
How is that possible, one area with so many differencesé The region became a DOC in 1968, and back then the boundaries for the planting of vineyards were much further off the hills than where the most plantings were. Soave became very popular and demand, particularly in America, boomed. Soon the flat, fertile areas were planted, overcrowded and eventually caused an overproduction of inferior wine and a bad image. Today the focus is back on quality, but among the total 50 million liters annually Soave brings out on the market there is still a lot of distasteful liquid. So be careful. Most important is the Garganega grape. Often the best Soaves are made of 100% Garganega.
If the quality of the Garganega is not optimal due to bad weather, he producer is allowed to add up to 30% Chardonnay, Trebbiano or Pinot Bianco. Garganega ripens late, the weather can sometimes change late summer. The wines are mostly minerally, delicate and have tones of rich fruit: citrus, lychee, passion fruit aromas and such, with a hint of almond, which causes a light bitterness. Sweet wine is also to be made, the Recioto di Soave, the grapes will be dried first. I'm sure I will make a film of such topquality Soave but for this episode a simpler kind of the Villa Mondi Soave
that I've bought at my local Dircklll for only 2.79 incredibly! In the wine almanac of Cuno van 't Hoff, I see that he has given this wine a star and I read that the wine is available in many supermarkets: the whole list can be found in the discription of this episode. And of course this is not the quality of Soave Tamellini for example, but this is just really a very fine glass of wine for just so little money. Well, especially for Suzanne, the one who responded the most so far: Excellent as an aperitif, with a piece of white fish and mussels. Italy is now on Leon's Winemenateries.
Thanks for watching again, episode 10 is about wine in general and why it's so much fun.