Concord Grapes Kidney Stones

Home Vineyard Growing Wine Grapes at Home

Hello and welcome to my home vineyard Let's get a lay of the land. As you can see thisis just a simple side yard it's got about 55 feet of space long twentysix feet of space wide we elected to go with twenty twofoot long rows northsouth facing uh. the rows are spaced about five feet apartto give us ample space for the vines to grow

and for us to manage and walk through we are planting about four plants per row to give it plenty of space to spread out and grow for the rows, we used uh. just simple fenceposts these are eightfoot fence post sunk about threefeet deep we tried to go about two feet deep butit wasn't uh. it just simply wasn't stable enough so we went that extra foot for stability

the wire is fourteen gauge wire uh. we elected to go with the verticaltrellising partly because it was easier and partlybecause uh. the north south facing rows, it allow it to get sun at all hours of the day uh. we have a drip irrigation linesran along the bottom we will be using half gallon per hour drips two per plant that allows us to adjust the water

water flow and manage the irrigation a littleeasier than if we used a heavier flow we'll actually be planting syrah grapes because we tend to be in a warmer, drier climateduring the summer doing something like pinot noirwould require greater cooler temperatures. that sort of thing that's our vineyard. We'll be planting the grapes nextweek and we'll come back then.

Flavor Science Whats Really in a Pumpkin Spice Latte

There is much more to a pumpkin spice lattethan meets the eye. Or, rather, more than what you think is meetingyour tongue! Say you take a big swig of a pumpkinpieflavoreddrink. The drink hits your tongue, and flows overyour papillae, the little bumps where your taste buds live. Within each taste bud, special receptor cellsbind with the compounds in the drink and send taste information to your brain. Meanwhile, the scent of the latte travelsup your nose, where more receptor cells this

time for smells tell your brain which chemicalsthey detect. Those signals, plus other information likethe color and texture of your drink, combine to form what your brain interprets as thetaste of pumpkin pie in delicious liquid form. But you haven't actually consumed any ofthe spices you'd normally associate with pumpkin spice flavor, like cinnamon, nutmeg,and cloves. Your brain thinks you have, because thedrink contained compounds specially designed to trick your brain. That's the science of synthetic flavoring,and it's involved in practically every processed

food. At some point in your life you've eatensomething with “natural flavors� or “artificial flavors� listed as ingredients. That meansthat the food has some added compounds to give it a specific taste. The science involved can be incredibly complexand flavorists, the scientists who work with flavor, often have to study for fiveyears or more to get certified by the Society of Flavor Chemists. And that's after gettinga bachelor's degree in biology, chemistry, or food science and usually a master'sdegree, too.

But this area of specialty has allowed thefood industry to become what it is today where you can make practically anything you want,have it taste like anything you want, and do it all for not very much money. Whenever you eat anything from a fastfoodcheeseburger to an apple picked right off the tree whatever you're tasting, yourbrain is picking it up from the chemicals in your food. People often talk about chemicals as thoughthey're somehow inherently bad for you, but literally everything in the universe ismade of chemicals. Water, the air we breathe,

organic broccoli everything. Thing is, it's often hard to tell what they'veactually included under the vague heading of natural or artificial flavoring, becausethe ingredients that make up different tastes are mostly secret, closely guarded by thecompanies that manufacture them. But, at least in the United States, everychemical in a flavoring has to be on the FDA's list of compounds it calls Generally RecognizedAs Safe, or else shown to be safe by whatever company is using it. For a compound to be considered a naturalflavor, it has to start out as part of certain

living things, like tree bark, meat, or yeast. But not all living things make the cut somethingthat comes from bacteria, for instance, wouldn't be considered a natural flavor. According to the FDA, artificial flavors arecompounds that aren't made from the living things on their list. Which means artificial flavors are just…every flavor that isn't a natural flavor. Isoamyl acetate, for example, is what you'dprobably recognize as banana flavor. It's in actual bananas, so if you extracted somefrom a banana, that would make it a natural

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