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Umbrella Kniffin System for Growing Grapes

David Handley: I'm David Handley, with theUniversity of Maine Cooperative Extension, and we're here to talk about pruning grapes.Very simple system for farnorthern production. Here in Maine, we need to protect the vinesas best we can through the winter, but at the same time try to get enough light andexposure to the canes that we're going to get good fruit set, and good fruit quality. One of the systems you can use for labruscatype or concord type grapes, which are the ones that do best here in Maine, which isthe umbrella kniffin. As opposed to the four arm kniffin, the umbrella kniffin puts allof its canes up at the top, or the first year

growth that's going to fruit. What we're talking about with cane growthhere is one yearold growth that has a chocolate brown color, and nice smooth bark with budson it. We're going to be saving four canes, plus the permanent trunk, to give us all ofour fruiting structure. Everything else is going to be coming off of here, and that includesanything that fruited last year. You can tell the two yearold canes, or thecanes that fruited last year, because they'll be thicker, and they'll have gray, peelingbark. All of these are going to come off, and we're going to save the one yearold canewith the chocolate brown color, and the smooth

bark. The first step in pruning is to look at ourpermanent trunk and remove all of the two yearold growth, the growth that fruited lastyear, saving a few canes that we'll be using for fruiting this year. Our first step isto cut some of these off, looking at that older bark there. We just cut that out, getit right out of there. This will open up the planting, and that twoyearold wood is not going to fruit. Unless we take it out, we'll find that our fruitingwood gets further and further away from the trunk. Part of the reason we're pruning isto keep that fruiting wood concentrated right

near the trunk. With the umbrella kniffin, which is what we'repruning to here, we're only going to maintain four of those fruiting canes. We want themall concentrated near the top of the trunk, or the top wire on our twowire trellis. We'regoing to take each of the canes that remain behind. As you can see here, here's my nicefruiting cane, smooth bark. All these are buds that are going to breakand give us long, green shoots that will have bunches of grapes on them. We're going todrape them over the top wire, and then we're going to attach them to the bottom wire, togive you that kind of quot;umbrellaquot; look, thus

the name of the system called the quot;umbrellakniffin.quot; Then we're going to cut off the ends of thecanes, so that there's only about 10 buds on each one. We just count those from thetrunk. One, two, three, four, five, six, seven, eight, nine, 10. If I need to leave one ortwo on there to make it reach the bottom wire, that's fine. I'll just go to where I can attachthis to the bottom wire, like that. I need two for the other side, to completeour umbrella. You can see this leaves me with several other fruiting canes, and I need tosave some of those as well, but they don't need to be as long. What I'm calling theseare quot;renewal spurs,quot; because we need the buds

from these shoots to come out and give uscane that we'll be able to put up on the wire next year. For every fruiting cane that I'm leaving behind,I also need to cut some renewal cane, or renewal spurs, to provide us with fruiting wood fornext year. I just cut these back to one or two buds, and if they're not where I wantthem I can cut them off completely. But for every fruiting cane, I need to leave at leastone renewal spur. I tend to leave a couple of extra renewalspurs here in Maine, because I'm very sensitive to the fact that I'm likely to get winterinjury almost every year.

Virginia Agriculture NASA DEVELOP Summer 2013 Langley Research Center

Develop Summer 2013Virginia Agriculture Analyzing Raster to Make Virginia VineyardsVaster gt;gt; Taylor: Due to the growing success of Virginiawine, the Commonwealth is interested in expanding vineyards across the state. gt;gt; Todd Haymore: We really need to plant moregrapes to keep up with demand because when you're having 810% sales growth a yearobviously you're going to have to have more sources to make the wine and that comes backto the grapes. gt;gt; Taylor: In order to successfully establisha new vineyard, a grape grower must identify

the most suitable growing conditions for grapevines.Grapes require very specific physical and biological conditions for cultivation. Temperatureplays a critical role in grapevine growth, so we met with viticulturalists in Virginiato better understand important temperature parameters. gt;gt; Sonia: So how much does temperature playa roleé gt;gt; Matthew Meyer: Oh a lot. gt;gt; Sarah: Using Land Surface Temperature datacollected by MODIS, an instrument aboard NASA�s Aqua satellite, we sought to enhance currenttemperature data derived from the National

Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration weatherstations. Weather Station data collects air temperature measurements at discrete locationswhich are then interpolated and can overlook conditions such as elevation.MODIS provides continuous data, which accounts for elevation in land surface temperature. gt;gt; Sonia: Ten years of daily MODIS Aqua datawas processed using Python programming and ESRI ArcGIS software. Data was analyzed usingequations from our research and climate parameters important to viticulturalists. gt;gt; Meredith: Our team calculated the numberof growing degree days based on the Winkler

Scale, a common method in viticulture forclassifying temperature regions. Tempranillo, Syrah and Grenache are the grape varietalsconsidered most suitable to Virginia�s climate. gt;gt; Pete Johns: Our last frost date is April15th. gt;gt;Sonia: How do you know that April 15th isthe last frost dateé gt;gt; Pete: History. This may 14th was a killerfrost in the rest of the state, and they lost the majority of their crops in some areas. gt;gt; Sonia: We also examined the risk of a commondisease known as Pierce�s Disease. Because of its mild winters, Virginia grape growersshould be cautious of this ailment as the

disease can survive through the winter iftemperatures do not dip below 10�F. gt;gt; Sarah: We also evaluated mean growing seasontemperature, and how this may change over time. Growing season temperatures are importantfor verasion, the onset of ripening in the grape. The formation of sugars and acids inthe grapes may occur too early if temperatures are very warm, or too late if temperaturesare not warm enough. Either fluctuation can affect the quality of wine the grapes willproduce. According to the 4th and most recent report by the Intergovernmental Panel on ClimateChange, there are multiple possible climate change scenarios that could alter annual averagetemperatures by 2099. We calculated and mapped

each scenario for the year 2050. gt;gt; Meredith: Just as temperatures that aretoo warm can affect wine quality, so can temperatures that are too cool. A surprisingly late springfrost can damage budding grapes, and an early fall frost can reduce leaf canopy, interruptthe ripening process, or affect vine�s winter hardiness. gt;gt; Taylor: These maps will be provided tothe Virginia Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, so they can be distributedto Virginia grape growers. Our outputs will help growers make informed decisions aboutselecting an appropriate location for a vineyard

A Grapevine In Its Natural Habitat

So as you guys can see we're down in a littleholler We've got a creek back here and a bunch ofshrubs Some downed treesand a lot of you know, pretty large trees nearbyit's mostly oaks and poplars uh and i wanted to give you a senseof what it looks like to see uh the grapevine in its natural habitatso i've got one right here and i'm going to show you what that looks likeSo this right here this vine is a grapevine in its natural habitatHere it is in the ground, again we're down

on this floodplain and the creek is rightthere now this is a very typical situationwe've got the grapevine coming out of the ground and it climbs all the way up to thetop of the canopy you can see it kind of curl around and go all the way up to the top andwhat it will do is put leaves out and fruit out up at the top of the canopy and you cansee it go all the way up and obviously you're going to get a lot of bird traffic up thereand that's where the birds will pick those berries and eat them and then they'll carrythose seeds to a different area and poop it out and basically those seeds can spring newvines like this from those little pellets

of bird poop.

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